World War I. Inevitability of war Black Hand (Assassins hired by Serbian gov’t) June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria assassinated July

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  • World War I
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  • Inevitability of war Black Hand (Assassins hired by Serbian govt) June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria assassinated July 5, 1914 Germany issues A-H blank check pledging military assistance if A-H goes to war against Russia July 23, 1914 Austria issues Serbia an ultimatum
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  • The inevitability of war July 28, 1914 A-H declares war on Serbia July 29, 1914 Russia orders full mobilization of its troops August 1,1914 Germany declares war on Russia August 2, 1914 Germany demands Belgium declare access to German troops
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  • Belgium is a country, not a road King Albert I of Belgium denied permission August 2, 1914 Germany declared war on France Why??? The Schlieffen Plan! August 4, 1914 Great Britain declared war on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality
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  • The Schlieffen Plans Destructive Nature
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  • The Schlieffen Plan Invade western front 1 st; quickly defeat French After defeating France concentrate on the Eastern front Avoid fighting a 2 front war
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  • The Schlieffen Plans Destructive Nature Germany made vast encircling movement through Belgium to enter Paris Underestimated speed of the British mobilization Quickly sent troops to France
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  • The Schlieffen Plans Destructive Nature Sept 6-10, 1914 Battle of Marne Stopped the Germans but French troops were exhausted Both sides dug trenches for shelter STALEMATE War of Attrition: Waiting out enemy until they give up [stop supplies!]
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  • 1914 1915 Illusions and Stalemate Many Europeans were excited about war Defend yourself against the aggressors Domestic differences were put aside Parties and celebrations were held at the start.
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  • 1914 1915 Illusions and Stalemate War would be over in a few weeks Ignored the length and brutality of the American Civil War (prototype to World War I)
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  • 1914 1915 Illusions and Stalemate Belief that Modern industrial war could not be conducted for more than a few months Home by Christmas
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  • 1914 1915 Illusions and Stalemate Fatal attraction of war Exhilarating release from every day life A glorious adventure War would rid the nations of selfishness Spark a national re- birth based on heroism
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  • The Trenches Trenches dug from English Channel to Switzerland 6,250 miles 6 to 8 feet deep Immobilized both sides for 4 years
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  • The Trenches
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  • Life in the Trenches Elaborate systems of defense barbed wire Concrete machine gun nests Mortar batteries Troops lived in holes underground
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  • Life in the Trenches Boredom Soldiers read to pass the time Sarah Bernhardt came out to the front to read poetry to the soldiers
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  • Death is everywhere We all had on us the stench of dead bodies. Death numbed the soldiers minds. Shell shock Psychological devastation
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  • Death is everywhere Mustard gas Carried by the wind Burned out soldiers lungs Deadly in the trenches where it would sit at the bottom
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  • Trench WarfareTrench Warfare type of fighting during World War I in which both sides dug trenches protected by mines and barbed wire Trench Warfare Cross-section of a front-line trench
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  • Trench Rats "The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself." "I saw some rats running from under the dead men's greatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heart pounded as we edged towards one of the bodies. His helmet had rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, stripped of flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from the yawning mouth leapt a rat." Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that littered the trenches, attracted rats. Quotes from soldiers fighting in the trenches:
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  • Officers walking through a flooded communication trench.
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  • A photograph of a man suffering from trench foot.
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  • Life in the Trenches Trench warfare baffled military leaders Attempt to breakthrough Then return to a war of movement Millions of young men sacrificed attempting the breakthrough
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  • Battle of Verdun Germany wanted to inflict heavy losses and capture Verdun 10 months ~700,000 men killed Extremely costly and deadly. Almost 1 million injured.
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  • Battle of Verdun French lost some ground but not very much. Germany lost 336K France lost 362K
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  • The changes of war New weapons crippled the frozen front Poison gas (mustard gas) Hand grenades Flame throwers Tanks Airplanes Subs
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  • The changes of war Airplanes Dog fights in the air Bombing inaccurate Romanticized the battlefields Paris and London bombed Pilots fired pistols and threw hand grenades
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  • The Eastern Front Russian army moved into Eastern Germany on August 30, 1914 Defeated The Austrians kicked out of Serbia Italians attacked Austria in 1915 G. came to Austrian aid and pushed Russians back 300 miles into own territory
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  • The Eastern Front Much more mobile more than the West But loss of life still very high 1915: 2.5 million Russians killed, captured, or wounded
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  • The Eastern Front Germany and Austria Hungary joined by Bulgaria in Sept. 1915 Attacked and eliminated Serbia from war
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  • The Home Front Women took war factory jobs Support by females back home vital to the war effort (supplies, medicine, ammo) Received lower wages than males Food shortages made running a household difficult
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  • The Home Front Censorship Not told about high death toll Romanticized the battlefields soldiers have died a beautiful death, in noble battle, we shall rediscover poetryepic and chivalrous
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  • The Home Front Censorship Newspapers described troops as itching to go over the top. Government reported to the press that life in the trenches promoted good health and clear air
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  • 1917 Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
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  • The Home Front On Leave Troops would stay together so they could sympathize with each other
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  • The Home Front Impossible to hide death Women in mourning Badly wounded soldiers returned home Opposition began to emerge
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  • The war winds down U.S. joins the war on the Allied side 1915 - Sinking of Lusitania 1915 - Unrestrained sub-warfare by Germany 1917 Zimmerman Note (next last slide) U.S. wouldnt get paid back if France/Britain lose 1917 Russia surrenders (a separate peace) Russia was experiencing the Russian Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution) Ultimately leads to a civil war (1918-1923) between Bolsheviks (Red Army) and those opposing the revolution (White Army mostly Monarchists). In 1922, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed (USSR); Also called The Soviet Union
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