World War I “The Great Warâ€‌ War to End All Wars. Origins of the War 1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) Heir to Austrian throne –June

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World War I The Great War War to End All Wars Slide 2 Origins of the War 1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) Heir to Austrian throne June 28, 1914 Sarajevo Gavrilo Princip (19 year old Serbian terrorist) Black Hand organization Killing of Ferdinand and wife Sophie begin the war Slide 3 Origins 2. Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany Declares war on Serbia (Austria-Hungary is Germanys ally friend) July 28, 1914 3.Russia joins Serbia 1.Declares war on Austria-Hungary 2.Vows to protect Slavic people Slide 4 Origins 4. Germany declares war on Russia, France and Belgium Formulates Schlieffen plan 2 side attack plan on France and Russia (same time) Aug. 4, Germany invades Belgium (to France) Helmuth von Moltke + 700,000 Germans defeat small Belgium army Capture and kill soldiers and civilians alike Slide 5 Origins 5. Great Britain declares war on Germany August 4, 1914 6. Turkey & Bulgaria join war on Germany and Austria-Hungary side Slide 6 Alliance Structure Triple Alliance Central Powers (bad side) Germany Austria-Hungary Italy (temporary) Triple Entente Allied Powers Britain France Russia Serbia Belgium India Canada Australia New Zealand Slide 7 Warfare Methods Traditional (mass slaughter) Trench STALEMATE (no one wins) Trench foot PP Machine guns Artillery Poison gases U-Boats (unterseeboot)- unrestricted submarine warfare American policy is ISOLATIONISM NEUTRAL Believed that Europe was now the grave of nations Most Americans favored the side of allies due to common cultural ties Americans hated the USW Germany used Slide 8 Russia Revolution 1917 Russia left war Czar Nicholas overthrown (entire family killed)-no survivors, no czar Bolsheviks (political party) Believed Communism They did not believe in the war Left France at the mercy of Germany, with Russia no longer a barrier Slide 9 Lusitania May 1915 Germany sinks HMS Lusitania (English) 1,200 dead (128 Americans) America condemns Germany and Wilson demands Germany stop USW Germany refuses to stop Slide 10 American Response Pres. Wilson re- elected president 1916 Wilson repeats his goal of NEUTRALITY. Calls reps from all sides to Colonel House-no winners, no losers Made all mad at him Slide 11 The Sussex Pledge April 1916 Germany sinks French supply ship (4 Americans hurt on board) Germany promises to stop USW Germany signed Sussex Pledge (promise to stop all USW) Wilson demands Germany quit USW Threaten to cut off all diplomatic relations + apply sanctions against Germany if they refuse. Wilson pursues his armed neutrality program; sends help to allies. Used old Anti- Piracy Law. Slide 12 War Hawks in America Congress want war Expand armed forces Establish universal military training programs National Defense Act (+soldiers/equipment) Naval Construction Act (ordered new ships) Germany goes back to USW Slide 13 Zimmerman Note Sent to Mexico by Germany. It was intercepted by England. It proposed: Mexico to invade America (keep us busy) When Germany wins, they would give Mexico back lost lands. Texas New Mexico California Arizona Slide 14 WAR Declared April 2, 1916 Wilson went to Congress; said America can be neutral no longer. US would join the war on the side of the allies. April 6, 1916 US officially enters war Began war machine buildup War economy Centralize management of resources Control public opinion Suppress dissent Slide 15 Stage I: Selective Service 21-31 year olds Draft Notices sent out across America Congress called up +3 million young men Trained within months Slide 16 Stage 2: War Industries Board Bernard Baruch, Director July 1917 Had power over all US industry Set prices Allocated natural resources Standardized products Ex. Type ribbon colors (150/5) Boost plant efficiency Suspend anti-trust laws & guarantee corporate profits Slide 17 Stage 3: Food Administration Herbert Hoover, Director Job: Convince Americans to be patriotic (food saved for soldiers) meatless Mondays Accomplishments: Victory gardens Set high prices on farm goods Womens Land Army (grew crops) Brought Mexicans into the country to work fields Slide 18 Stage 4: National War Labor Guaranteed rights of labor unions to organize; promotion of national interests; the right of collective bargaining. Accomplished: Improved working conditions Set higher wages Shorter work day to 8 hours per Slide 19 Stage 5: Womens Movement Women took industrial jobs left by men Rosie +100,000 women entered workforce Womenalls Women farmed, built planes, guns, ammo Opened up womens jobs to blacks Led to womens suffrage movement Led also to the prohibition movement (save grain to feed soldiers) Slide 20 Step 6: Public Opinion George Creel, Director Job: stop anti-war talk Create war propaganda (make the war seem right to Americans) Created posters, wrote news stories Brought in movie stars spokesman Responsible for Uncle Sam image Slide 21 Anti-German Stopped everything German in America Dachshunds, now called liberty pups German language not allowed taught in American schools 1918, Robert Prager (German) socialist coal miner lynched German food renamed Hamburgers now called liberty steaks Slide 22 Limiting Anti-War talk 1917 Espionage Act illegal to aid the enemy or to avoid military service DIRECT violation of the 1 st amendment 1918 Sedition Act Illegal to print, write, or publish anything critical of the government, the flag, or the military +1,000 jailed Eugene Debs (socialist leader) sentenced to 10 years Slide 23 Schenck v. U. S. Convicted of anti-war; anti-American speech Published +15,000 pamphlets/articles Filed appeal with Supreme Court Supreme Court sided with US To ensure the safety of the country during wartime Slide 24 Armistice Day Nov. 11, 1918 Guns of war fell silent Over 8.5 million dead Leaders (4) Woodrow Wilson (US) David L. George (UK) Georges Clemenceau (France) Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Peace Treaty Meeting Jan. 12, 1918 Versailles, France Wilson proposed: Open diplomacy Freedom of the seas Removal of trade barriers Reduction of arms Self-determination League of Nations (to settle disputes before going to war) Slide 25 Treaty of Versailles Germany must: Disarm its military Pay reparations to injured nations Accept total responsibility for war Give up colonies If Germany protested, France threatened to restart hostilities. Germanys allies must: Give up their colonies Slide 26 Treaty of Versailles Signed June 28, 1919 9 new nations created from ashes of German empire League of Nations established America did not join Slide 27 Post-War Battles at Home Distrust of League of Nations Americans did not favor L o N March 19, 1920 Senate cancelled the Treaty Influenza Military camps breeding grounds disease Fighting men brought it home Hospitals overwhelmed fell ill + 500,000 died from sickness Slide 28 Battles (2) Economic problems Jan 1, 1919 Military demobilized Government agencies cancelled Govt contracts cancelled Soldiers returned home Needed jobs Forced women out of war time jobs Housing shortage Slide 29 Battles (3) Unemployment High inflation & low morale Anti-foreigner sentiment 1921 (Quota law for immigrants) 1924 National Origins Act Set quota at 2% of aliens already living in America Clear attempt to limit Asian immigration Slide 30 Battles (4) Labor Conditions Organized labor 4 million workers in 3,000 strikes nationally Labor lost most of time Unhappy workers replaced Americans feared unionization Slide 31 Battles (5) Red Scare (fear of Communism) 1917 Bolsheviks overthrew Czar Nicholas II Vladimir I Lenin Believed all people should share all wealth, social standing, and resources collectively Established Soviet Union No class system allowed Established communism (no private ownership of property) Government owns everything Slide 32 Justice System Stop communism here Groups protested socialism Held dissenters in jails/prisons until Red Scare ended as political prisoners Led to the birth of the Federal Bureau of Investigations J. Edgar Hoover Slide 33 FBI J. Edgar Hoover, Director Mitchell Palmer (Attorney General) Palmer raids (stop evil red thinking) Collected files on radicals 39 arrested at bakery (revolutionaries???) FBI arrested +4,000 (33 cities) No warrants used, only arrested People beaten into confession All immigrants arrested deported No lawyers allowed Slide 34 Sacco & Vanzetti Italian immigrants May 1920 Anarchists (no government needed) Arrested for armed robbery Tried for robbery + beliefs Found guilty Executed 1927 Slide 35 Return to Normalcy American angry at Wilson War time taxes high Economic troubles Social problems high 1920 Election of Warren G. Harding (Rep.) Return to Normalcy Calvin Coolidge, V-Pres