World War Two/Cold War

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World War Two/Cold War. The End of World War Two The Beginning of the Cold War. Yalta Conference. February 1945. Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. Meet at Yalta in the Soviet Union. Purpose Decide the fate of Europe. How to divide Germany. East and West Who would control Germany. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of World War Two/Cold War

  • World War Two/Cold WarThe End of World War TwoThe Beginning of the Cold War

  • Yalta ConferenceFebruary 1945.Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.Meet at Yalta in the Soviet Union.PurposeDecide the fate of Europe.How to divide Germany.East and WestWho would control Germany.France/Britain/U.S. West GermanySoviet Union East GermanyWho would control Berlin.Who would rebuild Europe.Stalin agreed to oversee the creation of new governments in Eastern Europe.

  • The Atomic BombThe Atomic BombThe first atomic bomb is exploded in New Mexico on July 16, 1945.Aug. 6, 1945 the first bomb is dropped on Hiroshima 73,000 die.Aug 9, 1945 the second bomb is dropped on Nagasaki 37,500 die.The way war is fought is drastically changed forever.

  • The Cost of War 60 million people left dead.22 million Russians6 million Jews 50 million are driven from their homes. Damages run into the billions.

  • Tragedy of War 6 million innocent Jews, 5 million Gypsies, Slavs, handicapped, and others.In Nanjing in 1937 the Japanese murdered 250,000 Chinese.

  • Nuremberg War Trials22 Nazi leaders are tried for crimes against humanity.The world realizes that what occurred during the Holocaust can never happen again.12 were sentenced to death.

  • Creation of the United NationsAn international organization to protect the world against aggression.An international organization to protect the people of the world.

  • United NationsThe two main bodies of the United Nations are:The General AssemblyConsist of representatives of all member countries.All representatives have one vote.The Security Council15 member nations5 are permanent nations (U.S., Russia, France, Great Britain, China)

  • OccupationGermanyIn order to prevent Germany from starting another war, British, American, French and Russian troops were to occupy Germany.Germany would be split into East and West.JapanJapan was forced demilitarize or disband their military.Tojo was sentenced to death.The U.S. created a democratic government for Japan.The U.S. gave billions of dollars to re-build Japan.

  • Divided EuropeTwo major powers emerged from WWIIThe democratic and capitalistic - U.S.The Communist - Soviet Union.The political and economic differences of both countries would lead to the Cold War.This conflict between democracy and communism would spread around the globe resulting in;An arms raceRace to explore spaceMilitary conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, Africa, and the Middle East.

  • The Beginning The Atomic BombIn 1945 the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Japan.The atomic bomb ushered in the nuclear age.Once the U.S. obtained the atomic bomb the Soviets also began to start building the bomb.

  • The End of World War TwoThe war endsAt the end of the war Germany is divided to stop them from starting future wars.The Soviets control eastern Germany The U.S. and their allies control western GermanyThere is tension on both sides.

  • OccupationGermanyIn order to prevent Germany from starting another war, British, American, French and Russian troops were to occupy Germany.Germany would be split into East and West.JapanJapan was forced demilitarize or disband their military.Tojo was sentenced to death.The U.S. created a democratic government for Japan.The U.S. gave billions of dollars to re-build Japan.

  • Divided EuropeTwo major powers emerged from WWIIThe democratic and capitalistic - U.S.The Communist - Soviet Union.The political and economic differences of both countries would lead to the Cold War.This conflict between democracy and communism would spread around the globe resulting in;An arms raceRace to explore spaceMilitary conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, Africa, and the Middle East.

  • The Growth of Superpowers

  • SuperpowersAfter World War Two the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerge as the two superpowers.Superpower is used to describe the rivalry between both countries to dominate world politics.Both countries had a mutual distrust of the other.

  • U.S. v SovietsThe U.S. wanted toPromote worldwide democracy.Stop the rise of communism.Open free trade markets to obtain natural resources.Re-build Europe to open trade markets.Create a stable Europe and unite Germany to stop the spread of communism.

    The Soviets wanted toPromote worldwide communism.Control eastern Europe as buffer zone to protect the Soviet Union.Control eastern Europe as a way of countering U.S. influence in Europe.Keep Germany divided.

  • The U.S. and the SovietsBoth countries had a mutual distrust of each other.The tension between both countries came from different political and economic thought U.S.-Democracy and CapitalismSoviets-Communism and Command economyCalled a cold war because an armed conflict between either superpower never occurred.

  • The U.S. ViewThe United States developed a program called Containment.This policy was first outlined under the Truman Doctrine.It implied that the U.S. would use military alliances-NATO, economic aid-The Marshall Plan, and military involvement-Korean War/Vietnam War to stop the spread of Communism in the world

  • The Soviet ViewThe Soviets feared that the western nations would try to destroy the Soviets and Communism.Stalin distrusted everyone.Stalin forced pro-governments on the countries surrounding Russia like Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and East Germany.

  • SummaryIn the 1930s Germany, Italy and Japan attempt to build world empires.During World War Two new weapons of mass destruction cause massive loss of life to both soldiers and civilian populations.The brutality of war, killing innocent civilians which had never been seen in history. The world was now divided between democracy (U.S.) and communism (Soviets)

  • Early Cold War Tensions

  • The Iron CurtainAfter the war the Soviets were responsible for re-building Eastern Europe.Stalin wanted a buffer zone in Europe.Soon Stalin supported pro-communist governments in eastern Europe.Europe became divided east=communist west=democracyThis became known as the Iron Curtain.

  • The Iron CurtainSome of the eastern blockIron Curtain countries.

  • Soviet SatellitesThese pro-communist countries loyal to the Soviet Union became known as satellites.

  • ContainmentContainment is a policy of blocking the spread of Soviet influence and communism in the worldThis is done by giving economic and military aid and making alliances to help countries resist the Soviets.Containment first comes into play in Greece and Turkey in 1947.

  • The Truman DoctrineThe U.S. pledges to resist Soviet expansion.Communist were moving into Greece and Turkey.Truman asks Congress for both military and economic aid to be sent to these countries resist communism.This was a part of the containment policy.

  • The Marshall PlanIn 1947 massive economic aid to help rebuild democratic countries in Europe.Billions of $ were spent to help western European nations recover from WWII.Aid was also offered to countries like Poland which were under Soviet control-Stalin forbid these countries from accepting the aid.The Marshall Plan was also a policy of containment.

  • The Berlin Airlift1st Cold War crisis.1948Stalin wanted to force the allies out of Berlin.Soviets closed all land routes into Berlins ( No food)The U.S. and allies showed its support for the Germany and democracy by flying in supplies to West Berlin for 11 months.Finally the Soviets were forced to end the blockade.

  • The Berlin WallThe Berlin Airlift lead to a divided Germany.Western Germany was supported by the U.S. and in 1949 became the Federal Republic of Germany.In 1961 the East German government built the Berlin Wall to further divide Germany.The wall will become the symbol of the Cold War.East German military will shoot anyone trying to escape to the west.

  • N.A.T.O. v. Warsaw PactN.A.T.O. (1949)Western European countries formed a military alliance after the Berlin Airlift.North Atlantic Treaty Organization.Pledged to support each other with military support if attacked.Warsaw Pact (1955)Made up of the Soviet Union and seven of its satellites. (Eastern European countries)Pledged to support each other with military support if attacked.

  • The Soviets control the East

  • Repression in Eastern EuropeStalin and the Soviets tried to keep tight control over Eastern Europe.1950s Tensions rose in East Germany PolandSoviets use tanks to put down revolts.

  • Repression in Eastern EuropeStalin dies in 1953 However.

    The new Soviet leaderNikita Khrushchev takesControl and continues the repressions with the eastern block countries

  • Repressions in Eastern EuropeThe Soviets kept tight control of Eastern Europe.Some of the Soviet satellites wanted to break free of Soviet domination.In East Germany and Poland revolts were put down with tanks.The Soviets would use force to control the east.

  • The Hungarian RevoltImre Nagy a Hungarian nationalist lead a revolt in 1956.Nagy wanted to end one party communist rule.Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw pact.The Soviets sent in troops, thousands died and the Soviets kept control of Hungary.

  • The Invasion of CzechoslovakiaIn the spring of 1968 Alexander Dubcek called for liberal reforms and lessening of communist control in Czechoslovakia.The Czechs wanted to end censorship and create a new democratic constitution.The Soviets sent in troops, took over the government and restored a communist dictatorship.

  • Berlin WallSoviets built a wall surrounding the communist zone in the city of Berlin in an effort to prevent East Berliners from escaping to the west.Symbol of the Cold War.

  • Soviet DominationIt was c