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weaving machine for 3d fabrics and 3d fabrics uses

Text of woven 3d fabrics

  • Development of the Weaving Machine and 3D Woven Spacer Fabric Structures for Lightweight Composites Materials

    Von der Fakultt Maschinenwesen

    der

    Technischen Universitt Dresden

    zur

    Erlangung des akademischen Grades

    Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.)

    angenommene Dissertation

    M. Sc. Badawi, Said Sobhey A. M. geb. am 08.03.1970 in gypten

    Tag der Einreichung: 09.07.2007 Tag der Verteidigung: 06.11.2007

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. P. Offermann, Dresden Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Dr. h. c. K.-H. Modler, Dresden Dr.-Ing. habil. R. Seidl, Frick (CH)

    Gutachter:

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. W. Hufenbach Vorsitzender der Promotionskommission

  • I

    Acknowledgements

    I wish to express my deep sense of thanks and gratitude to all who contributed in some way to the successful completion of this thesis. I am particularly grateful to:

    - First and foremost, Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Peter Offermann, who gave me the great honor to work my doctoral thesis under his supervision, for many fruitful discussions, ideas and his invaluable guidance and help during this research. I am very grateful for his strong interest and steady encouragement. I benefit a lot not only from his intuition and readiness for discussing problems, but also his way of approaching problems in a structured way had a great influence on me.

    - Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl-Heinz Modler, Owner of the Professorship of Mechanism Theory at the Institute of Solid Mechanics, TU Dresden for his acceptance to referee this dissertation.

    - Dr.-Ing. habil. Roland Seidl, Training Manager at Mller AG, Frick, Switzerland for his acceptance to referee this dissertation.

    - Dr.-Ing. Gerald Hoffmann, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation for his support and invaluable advice with continuous suggestions and encouragement. Furthermore, his experiences that guided me throughout the whole period of my research.

    - I'd like to take this opportunity to thank Dipl.-Ing. Peter Klug, for his outstanding scientific assistance in the field of control-system and programming for the weaving machine, as well as a lot of constructive discussions.

    - My special thanks for the companies and organizations, especially SFB 639 which supported the demands and requirements of this thesis. Likewise, I thank the cultural affairs and missions sector of the Arab Republic of Egypt, which awarded me the personal financing for a scholarship that enabled me to study my Ph.D in Germany.

    - As well, I am grateful to my dear Prof. Dr. Eng. Ahmed Abdelsamad, who received his Ph.D degree before 30 years from Chemnitz University, therefore he advised me to study my Ph.D at TU Dresden in Germany. I thank him for his really great scientific knowledge in the field of weaving machine technology which he learned us as students in undergraduate study.

    - Certainly, I am proud of my dear Prof. Dr. Eng. Mahmoud Harby, under his supervision I researched my M.Sc., and I thank him for many constructive and fruitful discussions which had much influence on my analysis for the scientific problems. All of that helped me to finish my difficult theme of my M.Sc. successfully; therefore I was awarded my abroad scholarship.

    - My cousin Mr. Chancellor. Salah Badawi, for his continuous advice and encouragement. He has always faith in my abilities, a lot of thanks to him and all his family.

    - My uncle Dr. Med. Mohamed El-zind and his family, I am very grateful to all of them, for being the surrogate family for us during the many years we stayed in Germany.

  • II

    - My mother in law, for her constant support and encouragement which have much effect in my work and my life-journey.

    - My dear wife M.Sc. Marwa Helemish, very special thanks go to her. I express my deepest gratitude for her much patience and tolerance during the preparation of the thesis. Without her constant support and encouragement, the completion of this thesis would not have been possible. I invoke God to give me the power to help her and I send her my best wishes to finish her Ph.D in Microelectronics. I can't forget to thank my soul, our daughter Salma Badawi.

    - Last but not least, I am forever indebted to my late parents for their emboldening and confidence which guided me in the right direction.

    Dresden, 09.07.2007 Said Sobhey Badawi

  • Table of contents III

    Table of contents

    Acknowledgments ......... I Table of contents ......... III List of symbols and abbreviations ............ VI List of figures and tables ......... XI

    1 Introduction ......... 1

    2 Woven structures ........... 52.1 Classification of reinforcement structures . 52.1.1 Fiber-reinforced composites ...... 52.1.2 Prepreg ................. 92.2 The traditional methods of weaving 3D-fabrics ... 112.2.1 Pleated fabrics (Pliss) ....... 112.2.2 Terry Fabrics ............ 122.2.3 Double-layer fabrics produced on the face-to-face principle ....... 142.3 Composite materials ........ 152.4 Technical basic principles for new 3D-textile structures (selected samples) .. 172.4.1 3D-weaving process by using multiple filling layers at one time ... 172.4.2 Weaving process for double-wall fabrics .. 192.4.3 3D-warp knitted fabric structures ....... 202.4.4 3D-stitching structures ........ 21

    3 Manufacturings technology of 3D-fabrics .................... 223.1 Main methods for the production of pleated fabrics (Pliss) ..... 223.1.1 Weaving machine equipped with a special pleated device ....... 223.1.2 Weaving machine equipped with a fabric displacement device 233.2 Main methods for the production of terry fabrics . 243.2.1 Weaving machine equipped with the reed control mechanism ... 243.2.2 Weaving machine equipped with the fabric control mechanism ... 273.2.2.1 Fabric control mechanism on Sulzer weaving machine ..... 273.2.2.2 Fabric control mechanism on Dornier weaving machine ..... 28

    4 Structure of spacer fabrics ......... 304.1 Aims of the thesis ......... 304.2 Scientific-technical problem definition ....... 314.3 Tasks of the research ...... 32

  • Table of contents IV

    5 Technical solutions system ....... 345.1 Narrow weaving machine ..... 345.1.1

    Movement analysis for the fundamental operations on narrow weaving machine ....

    35

    5.1.2 Shedding ....... 355.1.3 Weft insertion ........ 405.1.3.1 Drive and control of weft-needle ........ 425.1.3.2 Drive and control of knitting-needle ........... 435.1.4 Weft beating-up ........ 445.1.5 Warp supply and let-off motion ...... 455.1.6 Take-up motion ............ 455.1.7

    The relationship between degrees of crankshaft rotation and the movement of weft-needle, healds and the reed ......

    46

    5.2 Development of spacer fabrics ... 485.2.1 Spacer fabric structure ..... 485.2.2 Weaving phases ....... 505.3 Development of the weaving machine .. 515.3.1 Development of fabric let-off and take-up warp yarns processes .... 515.3.1.1 Development of the warp let-off process .. 515.3.1.1.1 Development of the extra warp let-off device .. 535.3.1.1.2 Pneumatic cylinder ... 535.3.1.2 Development of the fabric take-up process ..... 545.3.1.2.1 Development of extra take-up device ....... 555.3.1.2.2 The development of fabric take-up device ... 565.3.1.2.3 Servo motor ... 575.3.2 Movement analysis of take-up and let-off processes ......... 585.3.2.1 Movement analysis of take-up process ............ 585.3.2.1.1 Movement analysis of take-up elements ...... 585.3.2.1.2 Movement analysis of the extra take-up roller ..... 595.3.2.2 Movement analysis of let-off process .... 625.3.2.2.1 Movement analysis of downward-movement for the extra let-off roller ... 625.3.2.2.2 The movement analysis of upward-movement for extra let-off roller ... 645.3.3

    Analysis of the exchanged forces for let-off and take-up processes on the narrow weaving machine ........

    68

    5.3.3.1 Analysis of the required forces for let-off process ... 715.3.3.2

    Analysis of the required forces for the forward-movement of the extra take-up device .....

    73

    5.3.3.3

    Analysis of the required forces for synchronous backward-movement of the extra take-up and downward-movement of extra let-off devices ..

    75

    5.3.3.4 Analysis of the required forces for upward-movement of extra let-off roller 76

  • Table of contents V

    6 Experimental work ..... 786.1 Research methods ....... 786.2 Development of the spacer fabric geometry ........ 796.2.1 Development of the spacer fabric shapes ........ 796.2.2 Development steps of the spacer fabric structures ............ 836.2.3 Development of the structure elements of woven spacer fabric ... 866.2.3.1 Spacer fabric constructions ............ 866.2.3.2 Spacer fabric set-up ..... 886.2.3.3 Spacer fabric materials ........... 896.3 Weaving investigations ........... 906.3.1 Elements of structures variables for the ground fabrics of the spacer fabric .. 916.3.1.1 Materials ............ 926.3.1.2 Woven constructions ....... 926.3.1.3 Number of repeats for the fabric constructions ... 976.3.1.4 Wefts densities ..... 976.4 Technical measuring tests ...... 976.5 Laboratory tests .... 986.5.1 Description of slippage strength test

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