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The Ohio State University College of Education School of Educational Policy and Leadership Policy Implications of PISA, TIMSS, & World-Class University Rankings. Chuing Prudence Chou ( ) Professor, Cheng-chi University, Taiwan Email: iaezcpc@nccu.edu.tw May 17th, 2007. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>The Ohio State University College of Education School of Educational Policy and Leadership Policy Implications of PISA, TIMSS,&amp; World-Class University RankingsChuing Prudence Chou () Professor, Cheng-chi University, Taiwan Email: iaezcpc@nccu.edu.tw May 17th, 2007</p></li><li><p>YOU ARE GOING TO SHARE ABOUT</p><p>What are the Policy Implications of PISA, TIMSS and the World-class University Rankings?What lessons can we learn from these global rankings from a comparative perspective?</p></li><li><p>ARE YOU IN OR NOT?</p><p>PISA (OECD)TIMSS (IEA) World-class University Rankings </p></li><li><p>IS THIS EVERYBODYS BUSINESS?The Finnish education phenomenonThe German PISA shockMexicans indifferent attitude (For PISA and TIMSS)</p><p>Brain Korea 21 (BK21)Japanese public university incorporationChinas 211 and 985 Project Taiwanese world-class university funding program, etc (For World-class University Rankings)</p></li><li><p>WHAT ARE THESE BENCHMARKS?PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) (OECD), first in 2000 and then held every 3 years. Three domains: reading literacy, mathematical literacy, &amp; scientific literacy.</p></li><li><p>TIMSS(Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study)IEAFocus on international mathematics and science achievement assessment. First data collected in 1995, and 1999, 2003 and 2007. The United States is collecting TIMSS data now.</p></li><li><p>WHAT ARE THE TEST OUTCOMES?There is a greater difference between Asian countries/regions and other countries in TIMSS rather than in PISA. Most English-speaking countries are ahead of Eastern European counterparts in. PISA, but fall behind in TIMSS.</p></li><li><p>WHY SUCH DIFFERENCES EXIT? </p><p>TIMSS items tend to be more curriculum-based (more universal), PISA items are more application-based (more real-life experience and cultural-bound)</p></li><li><p>Trends in PISA math achievement </p></li><li><p>There were 38 participating countries in 2003 PISAUS ranked7th in reading literacy (15th in 2000 out of 32 countries)24th in math literacy (19th in 2000)9th in science literacy (14th in 2000)20th in problem solving </p></li><li><p>Trends in PISA science achievement </p></li><li><p>Trends in PISA reading literacy achievement 2003</p></li><li><p>There were 38 participating countries in 2003 PISAUS ranked7th in reading literacy (15th in 2000 out of 32 countries)24th in math literacy (19th in 2000)9th in science literacy (14th in 2000)20th in problem solving </p></li><li><p> As the provision of higher educational opportunities becomes increasingly international, institutional comparison becomes more in demand. The two most frequently cited rankings</p><p>1. Shanghai Jiaotong University, Academic Ranking of World Universities2. Times Higher Education Supplement, London, Times Higher University World Rankings</p></li><li><p>WHO NEEDS WORLD-CLASS UNIVERSITIES? FROM WHOES PERSPECTIVES?</p><p>Becoming international, becoming competition-drivenMore pressure from domestic and abroadWho can afford joining the "World-Class Club"?Who benefits from these global, world-class competition? </p></li><li><p>MYSTERIES UNRESOLVED?What does that mean by the "World Class University"?How many world class universities do we need? Does every country need one?How could universities be evaluated and compared in an international scope? What measures should be taken in order to establish world class universities? Who share the cost and who benefit?</p></li><li><p>Worlds top 15 universities as an average of THES &amp; SJTU 2005 rankings Sources: Shanghai Jiaotong Academic Ranking of World Universities 2005; Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings 2005.</p></li><li><p>Sources: Shanghai Jiaotong Academic Ranking of World Universities 2005; Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings 2005.</p></li><li><p>WHAT CAUSES THE GLOBAL RANKINGS AND WHAT THE EFFECTS ARE?</p><p>The "Impact of Globalization " Borrowing and lending reform strategiesIn comparative education, there is a great need to examine how local reactions are to these external global forces .In policy studies, a new paradigm for educational policy-making and school reform is expected to be under way. </p></li><li><p>What can be learned and imported from elsewhere? (borrowing) What can be taught and exported elsewhere? (lending), The phenomena of cross-national policy attraction and educational borrowingGlobal and international convergence in education at the expense local needs and cultural diversity</p></li><li><p>Three types of National Policy Responses According to Steiner-Khamsi (2007), three types of policy reactions after international comparisons: Scandalization (to blame one's own weak educational system), 2. Glorification (to praise one's good educational system),3. Indifference to ranking results. </p></li><li><p>Typology of Political Reactions to International Comparative Studies</p></li><li><p>IS IT A FAIR GMAE FOR EVERYBODY TO PLAY?</p><p>What makes countries to react so differently?Has scandalization led to increased policy import from other educational systems?Has glorification led to increased policy export to other educational systems?Why some remain indifferent to these global comparisons?</p></li><li><p>DO POLICY MAKERS BENEFIT FROM THESE GLOBAL RANKINGS?</p><p> 1. More evidence-based research in public policy studies.</p><p> 2. More Outcome-based and standard-based criteria in monitoring school reforms 3. A "scientific rationality" in education to appeal to the tax payers 4. A legitimate self-referential system acting as policy borrowing ( a lesson learned from elsewhere) and a form of externalization. </p></li><li><p>WHY GERMAN KIDS FELL BEHIND?In the PISA study released in 2001, German students scored below the OECD-average with regard to reading literacy. The release of the PISA study led to a major uproar in the media, and calls for policy change and school transformation. </p></li><li><p>The Finnish Education PhenomenonGerman PISA ShockBrain Korea 21 (BK21) Japanese university incorporation Chinas 211 and 985 ProjectTaiwanese fifty-trillion dollars within five years world-class university funding program, etc.Indias brain drain of the university faculty</p></li><li><p>DARE TO SAY NO?!Problems with global rankings : 1. Credibility and reliability issues of PISA &amp; TIMSS 2. Danger of the international convergence of educational institutions and policies 3. Near-sighted government reform policies &amp; projects aiming at policy borrowing across national boundaries.</p></li><li><p>The assumption of standardized and universal qualifications within universities Diagnosed rather than prescribed formula approach, not aiming for solving local educational problems. 6. Indifference to the ranking impact on students, employers, teachers, and school officials.</p></li><li><p>7. Criticism about these global rankings as the fast capitalism which benefits ranking benchmarks 8. The advantage of English-speaking countries in the global university rankings 9. Only the richest and the best survive in the world-class university rankings 10. The rich get richer, and the poor get poorer.11. Increasing polarization of institutional resource generation, public funding, and educational quality nation-wide and world-wide. </p></li><li><p>12. The cumulative advantage vs. equal opportunities for all13. Most university ranking criteria focus on academic research productivity rather than human aspect in cultivation and collegiality.</p></li><li><p> 14. Higher education shifted from public good to private commodity. 15. Many courses and degree programs are packaged and marketed just like consumer goods, and students are seen as customers with a world of choice in front of them. 16. Exporting university services to less developed countries.</p></li><li><p>THE RANKING GAME IS NOT OVER YET, BUT THE LECTURE IS GETTING...International rankings and comparisons will continue in spite of criticism and protest. Support from many governments, mass media, educational institutes and the general public. Benchmarks create huge benefits.</p></li><li><p>QUESTIONS REMAINWhy the US has not so satisfactory PISA and TIMSS results, but has established so many world-class universities in the countries? </p><p>Does this global ranking competition bring real change or improvement to education at home?</p><p>What is the politics of comparison in global ranking?</p></li><li><p>Does Taiwan need to be part of the game? Why?</p></li><li><p> THANK YOU ( &amp; GOD BLESS YOU!!</p><p> Comments are welcome! Eamil: iaezcpc@nccu.edu.tw </p></li></ul>