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    The well known company NIRMA ltd. was started by Dr.K.K.Patel on 1! w"th the name o# the N"rma

    p$t. %td. &'t s"nce No$ember 1( "t becomes )NIRMA* p'bl"c ltd.

    The word +NIRMA,comes #rom the word +NIRUPAMA,. A da'hter o# Dr.K.K.Patel today NIRMA

    ltd. /a$"n two brands +NIRMAand +NIMA.

    NIRMA ltd. 0NIRMA chem"cal comple2 "s s"t'ated "n remote locat"on North-3est o# $"llae Kalatala$

    "n &aner d"str"ct. At 45 kms. Away #rom &ha$naar. The area o# the plant "s 6(78 acres.

    The total "n$estment o# the company "s Rs. 65999 crores wh"le "n Kalatala$ the total "n$estment "s Rs.

    6899 crores. The total manpower o# the NIRMA ltd. Is 14999 wh"le "n Kalatala$ 759 employees and

    1699 workers are there.

    NIRMA ltd. The man'#act'r"n soda ash to"let soaps deterent powder deterent cake lycer"n #atty

    ac"d and salt shampoo all. &'t salt shampoo "s not man'#act'r"n "n N"rma chem"cal comple "n

    Kalatala$. All plants o# N"rma ltd. Are #rom Italy ;ermany and ost e##ect"$eness ?'al"ty consc"o'sness "nterat"on o# latest technoloy 'n"?'e market"n strate"es

    and better team work made N"rma "s a modern company.

    +WORK IS WORSHIP, Is the motto o# shr" Karashanbha" Patel. The cha"rman and the mana"n

    d"rector o# the N"rma. As "t #o'nder started "n early ao. (5 years old N"rma "s now o$er 1599 crores


    In !9s and 89s were the domest"c marketed had only prem"'m sement w"th $ery #ew compet"tors and

    compet"t"ons. In 1! Dr. Karashanbha".K. Patel a son o# the #armer was try"n to m" soda ash and

    other "ntermed"ates to make a deterent prod'ct. /e was a ?'al"#"ed sc"ence rad'ate "s 199 s?. #t. back

    yard o# h"s home. M N.RA@ =E;

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    Altho'h plant s"te "s located at a re"on o# ac'te water storae and marshy "mper$"o's so"l has

    cons"stently b'"lt prod'ct"on le$el.

    Awarded by I>MA #or +Ccellence "n water reso'rce manaement "n chem"cal "nd'stry, #or the

    year 6996-699(.

    Awarded by ;'Barat =a#ety co'nc"l #or ;'Barat =a#ety award #or the year 6996-699(.

    De$elopment o# the reen belt w"th more then 17999 trees "n salty land.

    De$elopment o# the ra"n water har$est"n #ac"l"t"es #or collect"n prec"o's water r'nn"n to sea.

    Awarded by =a'rashtra >hamber o# commerce and "nd'stry &ha$naar. For >hamber ecel

    ecellence "n oran"Gat"on manaement #or the year 699(-6994.

    >ert"#"ed an I=@ 991-6999 company "n March 6995 by Toke plant

    P're water plan

    >ement plant


    N"rma "nd'stry started w"th small 'n"t and today "t "s a "ant 'n"t. 3h"ch corers ma"m'm market shares

    "n chem"cal "nd'stryH

    In the e$ery #"eld N"rma "$es "ts contr"b't"on s'ch as

    To ma"nta"n moderate d"$"dend rate #or the"r share-holders.

    Follow all the r'les and re'lat"ons o# the o$ernments.

    Ma"nta"ned ?'al"ty and beca'se o# the"r prod'ct "n the market a$a"lable at cheaper rate.

    >ontr"b't"on to soc"al act"$"t"es.

    >ontr"b't"on "n ed'cat"on act"$"t"es and wel#are act"$"t"es.

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    N"rma has de$eloped "ts owned R D Department where research and de$elopment be made

    and new prod'cts "s prepared #or sell"n "nto the market.

    The sa#ety system o# N"rma "s o't stand"n.

    N"rma has "ts own power enerat"n stat"on there#ore the process "s ne$er stopped e$en tho'h

    the"r shortae o# electr"c power "n ;'Barat.

    N"rma has ecellent /RM department an employer and employee relat"ons are $ery ood.


    N"rma "s a named "n e$ery tr'sted "n e$ery ho'sehold across Ind"a w"th decades o# eper"ence.

    +D'dh s" sa#ed" N"rma se aye Ran"n kapade bh" kh"l kh"l Baye, th"s B"nle "s 'sed s"nce last (7

    years at same rad"o spot has been 'sed cons"stently s"nce last 65 years.

    N"rma was #o'nded on Febr'ary 65 179 by Dr.K.K.Patel who "s cha"rman and mana"n

    D"rector o# th"s company.

    N"rma ltd. ot re"stered as p'bl"c ltd. >ompany on March 67 1(.

    The >ompany employees o$er 16999 people d"rectly or "nd"rectly "n the se$en 'n"ts.

    N"rma enBoys leadersh"p presence "n b's"ness o# deterent and soaps.

    N"rma "s lead"n FM>; >ompany "nstantly as +Ind"an &rand, #or deterent and soaps operated

    w"th a m"ss"on to pro$"de

    &etter prod'ct.

    &etter $al'e.

    &etter l"$"n.

    N"rma "s the Ind"a*s larest deterent man'#act'rer and marketer.

    N"rma also "ntrod'ced to"let soaps "n the year o# 19 and today N"rma "s second larest

    man'#act'rer "n the co'ntry.

    %arest player o# Ind"an deterent market share o# (7

    C$ery mach"ne capable o# prod'c"n 599 soaps per m"n'te.

    In 179 N"rma was only Ind"an &rand to "$e ad$ert"s"n at Moscow @lymp"c ;ame.

    Man'#act'r"n #ert"l"Gers l"ke s"nle s'per phosphate.

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    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    N"rma recently has taken o$er the =a'rashtra >hem"cal %td. 0Porbandar2. And become h"hest

    Man'#act'r"n o# soda ash "n the co'ntry.

    ( m"ll"on to"let soaps and 5 m"ll"on deterent cakes per day are sold "nto brand name o# the

    +NIRMA, and +NIMA,.

    More then ( lakh o# packets o# 1 k.+N"rma sh'dh salt, "s sold per day.

    N"rma has larest salt work "n As"a w"th the area o# 66999 Acers.

    N"rma was the corporate company to sponsor the F"lms o# Ind"an T.E.

    N"rma "s the s"nle brand name wh"ch has 499 m"ll"ons o# sat"s#"ed cons'mers.

    N"rma w"th "ts (6 branded prod'cts hold the market share o# abo't Rs.6!99 crores.

    ;ross sales o# Rs. 6!99 crores.

    6599 d"str"b'tors and 6999999 reta"lers.

    16999 employees and !99 pro#ess"onals.




    Instr'ment Raw mater"al handl"n. 0%"n"te coal cock and %"mestone2

    Pack"n handl"n.0soda2


    =a#ety /ealth and Cn$"ronment

    =alt works

    To"let soap and Fatty Ac"d

    F"nance J Acco'nt



    >"$"l Raw mater"al handl"n 0=alt handl"n2

    Pack"n handl"n

    Techn"cal =er$"ces




    /'man Reso'rce Department


    In#ormat"on Technoloy

    These are the ma"n departments. 3here$er needed the department "s #'rther d"$"ded "n to s'b-

    departments l"ke the sect"ons we saw earl"er.

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    And now "n ?'al"ty pol"cy o# the N"rma %td. we can see the "mportance "$en to the ?'al"ty as well as

    "nno$at"on and the cost e##ect"$eness. Abo$e all the departments are "ncl'd"n "n the NIRMA %td. In

    Kalatala$ plant &ha$naar.


    1!:- %and ac?'"s"t"on !555 acres #or constr'ct"on.

    17:- constr'ct"on o# soda A=/ plant w"th cap"tal o't lay o# est"mated "n$estment o# 1959 >r.

    6999:- soda A=/ plant comm"ss"oned o# 1699 TPD capac"ty In March 6999.

    6991:- To"let soaps plant comm"ss"oned and deterent man'#act'r"n started.

    699(:- soda A=/ plant capac"ty enhanced #rom 1699 TPD to 1799 TPD "n Febr'ary 699( w"th an

    add"t"onal "n$estment o# (99 >r.


    o 649 tone per day ca'st"c soda.

    o 799 tone per day stream Cpans"on..

    o 69 M3 t'rb"nes.


    N"rma "s a c'stomer- #oc'sed company comm"tted to cons"stently o##er better ?'al"ty prod'cts and

    ser$"ces that ma"m"Ge $al'e to the c'stomer.

    Th"s c'stomer- centr"c ph"losophy has been well emphas"Ged at N"rma thro'h

    >ont"n'o'sly eplor"n and de$elopment new prod'cts and process.

    %ay"n emphas"s on cost e##ect"$eness.

    Ma"nta"n"n e##ect"$eness ?'al"ty manaement system.

    >omply"n w"th sa#ety en$"ronment and soc"al obl"at"ons.

    Impart"n tra"n"n to all "n$ol$ed on a cont"n'o's bas"s.

    Teamwork and act"$e part"c"pat"on all aro'nd.

    Demonstrat"n belon"nness and eemplary beha$"or towards oran"Gat"on "ts oals and


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    N"rma "s a phenomenon and synonymo's w"th $al'e #or money. The brand transcends the spec"#"c

    dynam"c o# any part"c'lar prod'ct cateory wh"ch "s

    The best capt'red "n "ts abo$e m"ss"on statement. A statement o# s'sta"ned "nno$at"on an 'nceas"n e##ort

    to del"$er better $al'e to cons'mers thro'h better prod'ct ?'al"ty.


    +NIRMA, prod'ces #ollow"n prod'cts "n Kalatala$ chem"cal comple


    ='per N"rma deterent powder.

    N"rma deterent powder.

    deterent powder.

    N"rma wash"n powder.

    N"rma pop'lar deterent powder.


    ='per N"rma deterent cake.

    N"rma deterent cake.

    N"rma pop'lar deterent cake.

    N"rma olean.

    &l'e N"rma deterent cake.

    ;reen N"rma deterent cake.

    N"rma barten bar.


    N"rma bea'ty soap.

    N"rma bath soap.

    N"rma prem"'m soap.

    N"rma l"me #resh soap.

    N"rma herbal soap.

    N"rma harbal"na. N"ma rose.

    N"ma sandal.

    N"ma $"nner.


    %"near alkyl benGene.

    ='lph'r"c Ac"d.

    ;lycer"n. Fatty Ac"d.

    =oda Ash.

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    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    =h'dh "od"Ged #ree #low salt.


    P're water





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    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    answer was bro'ht by N"rma "n #orm o# Deterent >ake. The brand today "s ranked as

    most d"str"b'ted deterent cake brand "n the co'ntry by AIM= reta"l a'd"t. The prod'ct "s

    a$a"lable "n two pack s"Ges o# 165 rams and 659 rams

    The pos"t"on"n o#N%!' P(,+'! Dee!"e# C'e "s s"m"lar to that o# N"rma

    Pop'lar Deterent Powder b't meant to #"ht other deterents cake. Th"s prod'ct "s more

    "mportant as the 'noran"Ged players are #ar more penetrated "n cake market as compared

    to that "n the powder market. The prod'ct "s a$a"lable "n 165 rams and 159 rams pack

    s"Ges. .

    To meet the cons'mers row"n asp"rat"ons and to allow cons'mers to 'prade to a

    better ?'al"ty prod'ct N"rma "ntrod'cedS+,e! N%!' Dee!"e# C'e "n 16.

    As N"rma Deterent >ake "s to N"rma Deterent Powder ='per N"rma Deterent >ake "s

    to ='per N"rma Deterent Powder. It was la'nched to woo back the N"rma Deterent

    >ake 'ser who had sh"#ted to the compet"tors prod'ct. The cake has h"h deterency

    $al'e at an a##ordable pr"ce. It "s a$a"lable "n 165 rams and 659 rams s"Ges.

    %a'nched "n 4 - 7N%' G!ee# C'ebecame a close no.6 "n "ts sement

    w"th"n ( months o# "ts la'nch and was s'ccess#'l "n arrest"n the rowth o# compet"t"on

    "n th"s sement. Th"s brand has seen a n'mber o# cons'mer promot"on schemes t"ed w"th

    "t. The splend"d lam"nated m'lt"-colo'r wrapper wh"ch shows a sl"ce o# lemon and

    tr"sh'l eempl"#"es raGor-sharp d"rt c'tt"n e##"c"ency o# th"s cake. Th"s cake "s r"ch "nl"me per#'me and has an ecept"onally h"h brand recall. It "s a$a"lable "n s"Ges o# 165

    rams and 659 rams

    N%' B+e Dee!"e# C'e was "ntrod'ced as a low cost alternat"$e to the

    then a$a"lable bl'e deterent cakes "n 4 - "n $ery #ew select states and has e$er s"nce

    been per#orm"n $ery sat"s#actor"ly. It "s the ep"tome o# N"rmas endea$or to pro$"de

    better prod'cts at more compet"t"$e pr"ces. It "s a$a"lable "n 165 ram and 659 ram pack

    s"Ges. Th"s cake "s packed "n a dark bl'e wrapper and has stron eye catch"n presence on

    the shel#.

    N%' B'!'# B'! was la'nched "n 1 - 6999 "$es an o'tstand"n

    per#ormance "s N"rmas #oray "nto the sco'rers market. The sloan "Dar#an Hai $a

    Bar%an" in the prod'cts TE commerc"al has helped "mmensely "n con$ey"n themessae o# &artan &ars clean"n e##"c"ency $ery ?'"ckly across all sements. @'r TE

    commerc"al s'pports o'r pos"t"on"n o# N"ma &artan &ar as the one "$"n s'per"or

    ?'al"ty cleanl"ness and mak"n the 'tens"ls sh"ny and sparkl"n clean. N"ma &artan &ar "s

    a$a"lable "n a 499 ram pack"n.

    N%!' Ce'# was la'nched "n 6 - 6999 and "s a$a"lable "n a (99 ram bar

    pack"n. The >hak >haka >hak tele$"s"on commerc"al o# N"rma >lean show"n a

    whole set o# spotless clean $essels "n a k"tchen sparkl"n w"th starl"ht del"neates the

    h"h clean"n ?'al"ty o# th"s sco'r"n cake. It "s tareted at the low end o# the market.

    >lean "s epected to tr"er con$ers"on #rom the 'nbranded deterent powders and

    cakes. N"rma epects the sco'rers market to 'ndero dynam"sm w"th "ts "ntrod'ct"on o#

    two sco'rer cakes.B'/%#" S(',$

    N%!' B'/ S(', 0C'!1(%23: To"let soap market was dom"nated by #ew

    MN>s who co'ld monopol"st"cally dr"$e the pr"ces. The rowth o# to"let soap market

    was tremendo's "n 9s and was epected to "ncrease #'rther. N"rmas brand e?'"ty "n

    deterent market was $ery stron and was 'nan"mo'sly assoc"ated w"th $al'e #or money

    prod'cts. 3e saw no reason why cannot th"s be etended to the personal care market.

    N"rma $ent'red "nto th"s market w"th N"rma &ath a carbol"c soap to co'nter the larest

    sell"n soap #rom a MN> stable. The carbol"c soap sement tho'h a decl"n"n market

    saw a s'dden b'rst o# act"$"ty. N"rma &ath started a"n"n s'bstant"al $ol'mes at the cost

    o# he compet"tors and Ind"as larest sell"n brand. The pr"c"n o# the prod'ct was

    penetrat"$e at a ?'al"ty 0TFM - !92 wh"ch the compet"tors co'ld not match. Theprod'ct "s a$a"lable "n 85 rams and 159 rams pack s"Ges.

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    N%!' Be'+4 S(',: A#ter taret"n the larest sell"n to"let soap w"th

    N"rma &ath now was the t"me to taret the second larest sell"n to"let soap. N"rma a#ter

    s'ccess#'l la'nch o# N"rma &ath la'nched N"rma &ea'ty. N"rma &ea'ty was a pop'lar

    cateory soap wh"ch tareted the m"ddle and lower m"ddle class pop'lat"on o# the

    co'ntry. The prod'ct had h"h TFM content o# 89 an ecellent aroma and an

    ad$ert"sement w"th a to'ch o# asp"rat"on. The prod'ct became an "nstant s'ccess and "n

    no t"me became Ind"as th"rd larest sell"n to"let soap brand. The $ol'mes came #rom the

    cateory sh"#t as well as brand sw"tch"n. The prod'ct "s a$a"lable "n 199 rams and 159

    rams pack s"Ges and three d"##erent per#'me $ar"ants. Recently company has chaned "ts

    packa"n and made "t more contemporary by pr"nt"n the wrappers on s" color >err't"

    mach"ne #rom Italy thereby d"##erent"at"n "t #rom the me too look al"ke. The brand today

    "s row"n $ery #ast and "s #"rmly mo$"n towards the second pos"t"on. >ompet"tors tr"ed

    to copy the concept and the commerc"al b't were not able to match the s'ccess o#

    the brand. As "t "s sa"d yo' cannot #ool cons'mers when "t comes to ?'al"ty

    N%!' P!e%+ S(',: For the #"rst t"me "n the h"story o# FM>; there was

    an attempt to etend the $al'e #or money propos"t"on to the prem"'m sement. The

    concept was "nno$ated by none other than N"rma. N"rma la'nched N"rma Prem"'m =oap

    d'r"n 1! "n the prem"'m soap cateory w"th 79 TFM m"ld #rarance three $ar"ants

    and a to'ch o# class "n "ts ad$ert"s"n. The brand tareted to match the chan"n N"rmacons'mers pro#"le "n terms o# asp"rat"on ?'al"ty consc"o'sness and "mae percept"on.

    The brand has started p"ck"n 'p $ol'mes "n the prem"'m soap market wh"ch "s

    character"Ged by lare n'mber o# brands and c't throat compet"t"on. N"rma Prem"'m has

    been able to d"##erent"ate "tsel# "n th"s cl'ttered market "ts 'n"?'e packa"n and ecl's"$e


    N%!' L%e F!e$/ was la'nched "n 18 w"th absol'tely no ad$ert"s"n

    s'pport. The l"me sement o# the to"let soap market was row"n at a sedate rate pr"or to

    the la'nch o# N"rma %"me Fresh. %a'nch o# N"rma %"me Fresh saw the $ol'mes o# the

    sement row at more than 19. D'r"n the #"rst year o# the la'nch N"rma %"me Fresh

    o$er took the larest sell"n brand "n the l"me sement. The prod'ct "s pr"ced

    compet"t"$ely w"th 79 TFM content and stron t"nl"n l"me #rarance. The commerc"alwas a"red d'r"n the later part o# the year wh"ch saw the $ol'me row rap"dly. The

    commerc"al shot at Mald"$es and =w"tGerland w"th a new and yo'n #ace was e?'ally

    l"ked by cons'mers. The s'ccess#'l la'nch was termed as the se$enth best la'nch o# the

    year 18-7 by &'s"ness =tandard. There "n no look"n back and today N"rma %"me

    Fresh "s the 'nd"sp'ted market leader "n the l"me sement and "s "$"n sh"$ers to the

    compet"t"on. The prod'ct "s a$a"lable "n 85 rams and 159 rams.

    N%' R($e: The remarkable and phenomenal market response rece"$ed by

    N"ma Rose soap w"th"n B'st two months o# "ts la'nch has once aa"n pro$ed the mer"ts o#

    N"rmas comm"tment towards "ts cons'mers. N"ma Rose soap has ot an ecept"onally

    #"ne per#'me o# rose that l"ners aro'nd yo'r body #or a lon t"me e$en a#ter yo' bath.

    D'e to h"h TFM 0Totally Fatty Matter2 content "t pro$"des one o# the n"cest baths. Th"sbrand has already car$ed n"che "n "ts part"c'lar sement by ach"e$"n leadersh"p pos"t"on

    B'st w"th"n tow months o# "ts la'nch.

    N%' L%e the #"rst prod'ct "n the N"ma rane o# prod'cts has a $ery h"h

    TFM content and was "ntrod'ced "n 6 - 7 when the asto'nd"n s'ccess o# N"rma

    %"me Fresh =oap prompted compet"t"on to la'nch l"me $ar"ants "n the same pr"ce

    sements. N"rma "s comm"tted to the concept o# 'mbrella brand"n. 3e ha$e reaped

    bene#"ts o# th"s stratey r"ht #rom o'r "ncept"on t"ll date. In the past we ha$e #aced

    'mpteen n'mbers o# s"t'at"ons where the compet"t"on "ntrod'ces spec"al campa"ns to

    draw away the cons'mers attent"on #rom o'r core brands l"ke N"rma Deterent Powder

    ='per N"rma Deterent >ake N"rma &ea'ty =oap N"rma %"me Fresh =oap etc. The

    p'rpose was to l're away cons'mer attent"on #rom N"rma %"me Fresh =oap bytemporar"ly mod"#y"n the prod'ct. 3e at th"s po"nt o# t"me "ntrod'ced a #"hter brand

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    called N"ma %"me to pro$"de at sh"eld to o'r core brand - "n th"s case N"rma %"me Fresh

    =oap. The s'ccess o# N"ma %"me has been the cornerstone "n N"ma brand row"n "nto a

    #'ll #leded b's"ness

    N%' S'#*': Th"s soap was la'nched "n 6 - . @$er a per"od o# t"me the

    Ind"an to"let soap market has #ramented and has seen the emerence o# prom"nent

    sements s'ch as =andal Rose Oasm"ne &ody mo"st'r"G"n soaps /erbal etc. N"ma

    =andal "s N"rmas o##er"n "n the ethn"c sandal sement. 3"th a r"ch and eot"c per#'me

    and 79 TFM content th"s to"let soap "s a$a"lable "n a 199 ram pack"n. N"ma =andal "s

    promoted by a TE commerc"al shot at eot"c locales dep"ct"n the #orm o# 61st >ent'ry

    Ind"an woman. Carly market "nd"cat"on prom"ses th"s brand to be the #'t're no.1 "n th"s


    N%' He!1' "s the emanat"on o# N"rmas ?'al"ty and cal"ber. N"ma /erbal "s

    "nra"ned w"th bene#"ts that accr'e #rom 's"n $ar"o's herbs shr'bs med"c"nal plants and

    $ar"o's day-to-day commod"t"es l"ke sandal wood lemon t'rmer"c cocon't t'ls" neem

    etc. that are "#ted to mank"nd by nat're. N"ma /erbal "s the nat'res leacy. It "s

    re#lect"on o# N"rmas con$"ct"on o# >are For The nat'res leacy. It "s re#lect"on o#

    N"rmas con$"ct"on o# >are #or the >ons'mers. It was la'nched "n ( 6999 w"th a 87

    TFM content "n a 199 ram pack"n.

    N%!' He!1'%#': N"rma has "n$ar"ably "dent"#"ed the ner$e o# the marketand answered "t at the proper t"me. 3e addressed the ay'r$ed"c and med"cated soap

    sement w"th N"rma /erbal"na. %a'nched "n ( - 6999 w"th a h"h TFM content

    /erbal"na "s N"rmas latest "ntrod'ct"on "n the rane o# to"let soaps. The nat'ral

    commod"t"es that are shown on the wrapper blend $ery well w"th the reen colo'r o# the

    eye-catch"n pack. A$a"lable "n a 199 ram pack"n s"Ge N"rma /erbal"na "s the Nat'ral

    #low o# #reshness. It "s N"rmas yet another "mpress"on o# &etter Prod'cts &etter Eal'e

    &etter %"$"n. /erbal"na has an ecept"onal lon-last"n heart-capt'r"n aroma.


    1. /a"r care

    a. N"rma &ea'ty =hampoo

    b. N"rma =h"kaka"6. Toothpaste

    a. N"rma Toothpaste

    - 16 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    =elect Record Cam"ne De$elop Install

    375 Wr8 S%/d0:-

    3ork st'dy de#"ned as that body o# knowlede concerned w"th the analys"s o# the work methods and

    the e?'"pments 'sed "n per#orm"n a Bob the des"n o# an opt"m'm work method and the standard"Gat"on

    o# proposed work method.

    395 Wr8 Mea,/remen%:-

    3ork meas'rement "s de#"ned as the appl"cat"on o# techn"?'es des"ned to establ"sh the work content

    o# a spec"#"ed task by determ"ned the t"me re?'"red #or carry"n o't the task at a de#"ned standard o#

    per#ormance by a ?'al"#"ed worker.

    35 Plan% ;a0/%:-

    A ood layo't "s one wh"ch allows mater"als rap"dly and d"rectly #or process"n. Th"s red'ces mater"al

    handl"n cler"cal and other costs down pre 'n"t space re?'"rements are m"n"m"Ged and "t red'ces "dlemach"ne and "dle man t"me.


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    Market"n "s a soc"etal process by wh"ch "nd"$"d'als and ro'ps obta"n what thro'h creat"n

    o##er"n and #reely echan"n prod'cts and ser$"ces o# $al'e w"th others.

    Cre *n*e#%, mar8e%in

    Taret markets and sementat"on:-

    Marketplace Marketspace and Metamarket

    Marketers and Prospects

    Needs3antsand Demands

    Prod'ct @##er"n and &rand

    Eal'e and =at"s#act"on

    Cchane and Transact"ons

    In market"n manaement there are $ar"o's*n*e#%,a$a"lable. They are as #ollows.

    T1e #rd/*%in *n*e#%:-

    The prod'ct"on concept holds that cons'mers w"ll pre#er prod'cts that are w"dely a$a"lable and

    "nepens"$e. Manaers o# prod'ct"on-or"ented b's"ness concentrate on ach"e$"n h"h prod'ct"on

    e##"c"ency low costs and mass-d"str"b't"on.

    T1e #rd/*% *n*e#%:-

    The prod'ct concept wh"ch holds that cons'mers w"ll #a$or those prod'cts that o##er the most

    ?'al"ty per#ormance or "nno$at"$e #eat'res. Manaers "n these oran"Gat"ons #oc's on mak"n s'per"or

    prod'cts and "mpro$"n them o$er t"me.

    T1e ,ellin *n*e#%:-

    The sell"n concept holds that cons'mers and b's"nesses "# le#t alone w"ll ord"nar"ly not b'y

    eno'h o# the oran"Gat"on*s prod'cts. The oran"Gat"on m'st there#ore 'ndertake an aress"$e sell"nand promot"on e##ort. Th"s concept ass'mes that cons'mers typ"cally show b'y"n "nert"a or res"stance

    and m'st be coaed "nto b'y"n.

    T1e mar8e%in *n*e#%:-

    The market"n concept holds that the key to ach"e$"n "ts oran"Gat"on oals cons"sts o# company

    be"n more e##ect"$e than compet"tors "n creat"n del"$er"n and comm'n"cat"n s'per"or c'stomer

    $al'e to "ts chosen taret markets.

    - 15 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    inan*ial Manaemen%

    F"nanc"al manaement "s the process o# allocat"n #'nds as a short term and lon term to the de#"c"t. It

    sho'ld be an opt"mally allocat"on o# #'nds. It "s known as #"nanc"al manaement.

    There are ma"n two obBect"$es o# the #"nanc"al manaement.

    1. Pro#"t Ma"m"Gat"on

    6. 3ealth Ma"m"Gat"on

    %et*s we epla"n "n deta"ls o# these two ma"n and pr"mary obBect"$es.

    4. Pri% Ma?imi@a%in:-

    Pro#"t Ma"m"Gat"on "s the ma"n and pr"mary obBect"$es o# e$ery oran"Gat"on. There#ore It wo'ld be

    sa"d as "ncreas"n earn"ns capac"ty at the each o# the year.

    6. Weal%1 Ma?imi@a%in:-

    3ealth Ma"m"Gat"on "s the second pr"mary obBect"$es #or e$ery oran"Gat"on. It means "ncreas"n

    market $al'e o# the shares. There#ore 'lt"mately e$ery stake holders w"ll et bene#"ts #orm that.

    There are $ar"o's %e*1ni2/e,wh"ch 'sed "n #"nanc"al manaement by e$ery manaer. These are as


    C,% Ca#i%al

    The cost o# cap"tal "s an "mportant "np't "n the cap"tal b'det"n dec"s"on. >oncept'ally "t re#ers to

    the d"sco'nt rate that wo'ld be 'sed "n determ"n"n the present $al'e o# est"mated #'t're bene#"ts

    assoc"ated w"th cap"tal proBect. In operat"onal terms "t "s de#"ned as the we"hted a$erae o# the cost o#

    each type o# cap"tal. The elements be"n the cost o# each components o# the cap"tal. The maBor lon term

    so'rces o# the #'nds are as #ollows.

    0A2 Debts 0&2 Pre#erence share 0>2 C?'"ty >ap"tal and 0D2 Reta"ned earn"ns. And "n the

    calc'lat"on o# the we"hted a$erae cost o# cap"tal there may be two costs are "n$ol$ed l"ke /"stor"cal

    and Mar"nal cost.

    Ca#i%al B/de%in:-

    >ap"tal b'det"n "s the paramo'nt "mportance as the #ramework #'t're de$elopment and the

    maBor determ"nant o# e##"c"ency and comparat"$e power o# a #"rm. It relates to #"ed or lon term assets

    wh"ch are de#"ned as assets that are "n operat"on and y"eld ret'rn o$er per"od o# t"me. It there#ore

    "n$ol$es a c'rrent o'tlay "n ret'rn #or a ser"es o# ant"c"pated #'t're bene#"ts.

    Th's the system o# cap"tal b'det"n "s employed to e$al'ate dec"s"on s that c'rrent o'tlay b't

    are l"kely to prod'ce bene#"ts o$er per"od o# t"me. ='ch dec"s"ons may be class"#"ed "nto 0a2 "ncome

    epans"onary 0b2 cost red'ct"on 0c2 t"me $al'e o# money 0d2 cap"tal rat"on"n. And at the last the data

    re?'"rement #or cap"tal b'det"n "s "ncremental a#ter ta cash #lows.


    - 1! -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    %e$eraes pro$"de the #ramework #or #"nanc"n dec"s"ons o# the #"rm. It may be de#"ned as the

    employment o# an assets or so'rce o# #'nds #or wh"ch the #"rm has to pay a #"ed cost or #"ed ret'rn.

    There are $ar"o's types o# le$erae. They are as #ollows

    @perat"n le$erae

    F"nanc"al le$erae

    >omb"ned le$erae

    O#era%in le+erae:-

    @perat"n le$erae means "t the rat"o between contr"b't"on and C&IT 0Carn"ns be#ore "nterest and


    inan*ial le+erae:-

    F"nanc"al le$erae means "t "s the rat"o between C&IT and C&T.

    Cmbined le+erae:-

    >omb"ned le$erae means "t "s the m'lt"pl"cat"on o# operat"n and #"nanc"al le$eraes. And "t "s the

    rat"o between >ontr"b't"on and C&T.

    Ca#i%al S%r/*%/re

    >ap"tal str'ct're re#ers to the m" or d"##erent so'rces o# #"nanc"n to the total cap"tal"Gat"on. A

    cap"tal str'ct're theory epla"ns the theoret"cal relat"onsh"p between cost o# cap"tal and the $al'e o# the


    The "mportant a##ra*1e,are:

    Net "ncome approach Net operat"n "ncome approach

    Ne% in*me a##ra*1:-

    Accord"n to NI approach cap"tal str'ct're "s rele$ant as a chane "n "t w"ll lead to a

    correspond"n chane "n the cost o# cap"tal and the total $al'e o# the #"rm.

    Ne% #era%in in*me a##ra*1:-

    Net operat"n "ncome approach has totally "rrele$ant cap"tal str'ct're. A chane "n le$erae w"ll

    not ca'se any chane "n the cost o# cap"tal and $al'e o# the #"rm.

    - 18 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    H/man re,/r*e, Manaemen%:-

    /'man Reso'rces manaement "s concerned w"th the people d"mens"on "n manaement. ="nce

    oran"Gat"on "s made 'p o# people ac?'"r"n the"r ser$"ces de$elop"n the"r sk"lls mot"$at"n them to

    h"h le$els o# per#ormance and ens'r"n that they cont"n'e to ma"nta"n the"r comm"tment to the

    oran"Gat"on are essent"al to ach"e$"n oran"Gat"onal obBect"$es. Th"s "s tr'e reardless o# the type o#

    oran"Gat"on o$ernment b's"ness ed'cat"on health recreat"on also soc"al act"on. ;ett"n and keep"n

    ood people "s cr"t"cal to the s'ccesses o# e$ery oran"Gat"on whether pro#"t or non pro#"t p'bl"c or


    /'man reso'rce plann"n:-

    /RP "s the process by wh"ch an oran"Gat"on can ens're that "t has the r"ht n'mber and r"ht

    types o# people at the r"ht places at the r"ht t"me capable o# e##ect"$ely and e##"c"ently #"n"sh"n

    the tasks wh"ch can ass"st oran"Gat"on to atta"n "ts o$erall obBect"$es.

    /RP then con$erts the obBect"$es and plans o# the oran"Gat"on "nto the n'mber o# workers needed

    ach"e$e s'ch obBect"$es.

    Recr'"tment:-+Recr'"tment "s the process o# search"n #or prospect"$e employees and st"m'lat"n them to apply

    #or Bobs "n the oran"Gat"on., Th"s de#"n"t"on can be analyses by d"sc'ss"n the process o#

    recr'"tment thro'h system approach.


    Tra"n"n "s de#"ned as +the act o# "ncreas"n the knowlede and sk"lls o# an employee #or do"n a

    part"c'lar Bob.,

    +Tra"n"n cons"sts o# planned proram des"ned to "mpro$e per#ormance at the "nd"$"d'al ro'ps

    and there ha$e been meas'rable chanes "n knowlede sk"lls att"t'des and soc"al beha$"or.

    Rem'nerat"on o# eec't"$esThe eec't"$e compensat"on has become an "nteral part o# manaement they are salary lon-term

    "ncent"$es bon's per?'"s"tes 0perks2

    - 17 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    Tare% C/,%mer, %1e Prd/*%

    The taret c'stomer o# the prod'ct are m"ddle class n 'pper m"ddle class beca'se tho'h N"rma "s

    ?'"te "n a ood reach to r'ral people so there ma"n taret "s to s'sta"n that r'ral people w"th creat"n

    new c'stomers "n the m"ddle class n 'pper m"ddle class. Tho'h "ts ?'"te d"##"c'lt #or n"rma to

    create beca'se "ts compet"tors r "n w"de rane then n"rma b't n"rma ha$e h"s name wh"ch "s ?'"te

    #am"l"ar to each n e$ery people or deterent 'ser "n the co'ntry.

    Cn,/mer Wan%, Need, Demand,

    &etter ?'al"ty prod'cts.

    >heaper "n pr"ce.

    Ear"ety "n deterent #or epens"$e clothes.

    Cas"ly a$a"lab"l"ty

    Attract"$e packa"n

    Cde o$er other brand

    Cco-#r"endly Non poll'tant

    W10 Cn,/mer B/0 T1i, Prd/*%. >heaper "n pr"ce than others.

    The new "mpro$ement "n the prod'ct w"ll attract cons'mer $ery m'ch "n low pr"ce.

    Nirma S1/ld Wr8 On :

    Introd'ct"on o# sachet

    Introd'ct"on o# Fam"ly Bar

    Introd'ct"on o# %"?'"d deterent #or woolen clothes

    Impro$ement "n Research n De$elopment ro'p

    Impro$ement "n D"str"b't"n patterns

    Introd'ct"on o# attract"$e packet

    @##er better comm"ss"on to the seller #or sell"n o# prod'ct &etter ad$ert"sement

    Cnhance the mode o# ad$ert"sement l"ke thro'h rad"o #ree d"str"b't"on

    Feedback Demonstrat"on o# new packet

    a*%r %1a% ae*% #e#le

    Accord"n to the s'r$ey the chart shows that almost 459 peoples are 's"n N"rma

    beca'se o# the"r low pr"ce 3hereas 665 peoples are bel"e$ed "n &rand "mae o#

    - 1 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    the N"rma. As abo$e chart shows that 159 people a##ected by the Ad$ert"sement o#

    N"rma and 195 peoples are 's"n N"rma beca'se o# "ts #rarance.

    S/#er Nirma Wa,1in Pder ::...

    Cplod"n the myth that )better ?'al"ty always demands h"her pr"ce, N"rma

    "ntrod'ced a spray-dr"ed bl'e colo'red wash"n powder "n the prem"'m sement "n

    1!. A$a"lable "n 65 599 and 1999 packs th"s prod'ct o't-classed "ts

    compet"tor brands. T1/1! #ri*ed alm,% 9 E le,,er! %1/, #r+idin a +er0

    a%%ra*%i+e F+al/e-r-mne0G #r#,i%in.Th"s brand w"th"n a short span o# two

    years had cornered s'bstant"al market share "n the prem"'m deterent sement and

    cont"n'es to per#orm well.

    S/#er Nirma De%eren% Ca8e ::...

    To meet the row"n asp"rat"ons o# cons'mers and to o##er them $al'e-cha"n prod'ct

    port#ol"o N"rma "ntrod'ced ='per N"rma Deterent >ake "n 16. A$a"lable "n 165

    and 659 pack s"Ges th"s prod'ct w"th"n a short span con$"nced the cons'mers o#

    compet"tor brands to sw"tch the"r loyalty towards ='per N"rma deterent cake. 3"th a

    h"h deterency $al'e th"s prod'ct o##ers ?'al"ty wash to the"r cons'mers.

    ='per N"rma Deterent >ake was ranked as the #astest >l"mber #or the year 18-7 "n

    the deterent cake bars cateory

    Nirma P#/lar De%eren% Pder ::...

    To cater to the needs o# the spec"#"c taret a'd"ence N"rma la'nched a ood ?'al"ty

    prod'ct at a $ery a##ordable pr"ce. The obBect"$e "s to con$ert the non-'sers o#

    deterents "nto 'sers and also pre$ent the compet"tors and local man'#act'rers tol're away the prospect"$e N"rma cons'mers by s'b-standard prod'cts. Th"s prod'ct

    has created a loyal cons'mer base o# "ts own and has establ"shed s'bstant"al amo'nt

    o# $ol'mes. It "s a$a"lable "n pack s"Ges o# 599 and 1999 pack s"Ges.

    Nirma P#/lar De%eren% Ca8e ::...

    The pos"t"on"n o# N"rma Pop'lar Deterent >ake "s s"m"lar to that o# N"rma Pop'lar


    Powder. Th"s prod'ct "s a$a"lable "n 165 and 659 pack s"Ges tareted to #"rst-t"me

    deterent cake 'ser sement.

    Dire*% Indire*% Cm#e%i%in

    - 69 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    From the abo$e chart we can eas"ly obser$e that N"rma holds appro. 6! o# total market as related

    to "ts compet"tors. As we can also obser$e that /'l co$ers most o# the market share that*s (. 3e

    can also see that others also capt're ood market share that*s 65 "t "ncl'des domes"c deterent l"ke

    ;had" and all.

    It "s t"me #or the two maBor deterent man'#act'rers - /"nd'stan %e$er 0/%%2 and /enkel

    =p"c - to lather 'p a #roth by aress"$ely rela'nch"n the"r m"d-pr"ced 0Rs. 46 - Rs.452

    deterent powder market "n Ind"a.

    3h"le /%% rela'nched "ts R"n =hakt" /enkel =p"c #ollowed s'"t w"th Mr. 3h"te. &oth prod'cts ha$e

    an "mpro$ed prod'ct propos"t"on w"th new "nred"ents and come "n redes"ned packs.The Rs.5899 crore deterent market "s semented "nto two prod'ct cateor"es - powder and cake.

    3"th"n th"s the deterent powder market "s #'rther s'b d"$"ded "nto #o'r cateor"es -

    concentratescompact 0$ar"ants o# ='r# /enko Ar"el2 prem"'m 0$ar"ants o# ='r# /enko Ar"el2

    mass prem"'mm"d pr"ce 0R"n Mr.3h"te T"de and re"onal brands2 and pop'lar 0N"rma 3heel


    Eal'e-w"se the prem"'m sement contr"b'tes a maBor share wh"le the pop'lar brands contr"b'tes

    the $ol'mes. /owe$er the deterents market "n a eneral has not rown "n the last co'ple o# years

    hence the rela'nches

    =ays /enkel =p"cs mana"n d"rector =at"sh K'mar The rela'nch "s not only to "n#'se some

    ec"tement "nto the market b't also to o##er better prod'ct to the cons'mers.

    The #"rst to mo$e was /%%. Carly "n Oan'ary th"s year the company rela'nched "ts R"n =hakt"powder as the New R"n Powder. The newness "s the deterents property to d"ssol$e #'lly "n the

    water 'nl"ke w"th the earl"er prod'ct and other compet"n brands. Th"s cla"ms the man'#act'rer

    res'lts "n lower 'sae and better clean"n o# the #abr"c - a technoloy patented by M N.RA@ =E;

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    market share o# 14 per cent wh"ch w"th the rela'nch "s epected to o 'p to 69 per cent. The brand

    has ood presence "n Andhra Pradesh Kerala and Tam"l Nad'.

    Pred"ctably cons'mers o# both brands ha$e to s'##er a sl"ht pr"ce h"ke. De#ends K'mar The pr"ce

    h"ke o# Mr. 3h"te "s B'st one r'pee to take care o# the "ncrease "n "np't costs. Accord"n to h"m #or

    the past two years there was no pr"ce "ncrease tho'h the costs o# "np'ts had one 'p.

    3h"le Mr.3h"te "s a$a"lable #or Rs.46 per k the New R"n Powder "s a$a"lable at an "ntrod'ctory

    pr"ce o# Rs.46k as aa"nst the normal pr"ce o# Rs.45.

    /%%s tele$"s"on commerc"al #or the New R"n Powder talks abo't the cons'mers des"re to sport

    sparkl"n wh"te clothes. @n the other hand /enkel =p"cs commerc"al 'ses a top-down approach.

    The commerc"al #eat'res a sc"ent"sts #am"ly as 'sers o# Mr.3h"te #eel"n happy w"th "ts d"rt

    remo$"n propert"es.

    =ays K'mar Research shows that people enerally bel"e$e "n the $o"ces o# a'thor"ty and eper"ence

    l"ke sc"ent"sts doctors teachers. The company does not #orsee any brand cann"bal"sat"on between

    Mr.3h"te and "ts Rs 199-crore /enko w"th the #ormer eat"n "nto /enkos market share.

    The respect"$e brand pos"t"on"n 0/enko the sta"n remo$er and Mr.3h"te the daGGl"n wh"teness

    deterent2 and taret markets sements are d"##erent remarks K'mar.

    - 66 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    FINDIN; AND =ompany sho'ld "ncrease "ts prod'ct"on strenth beca'se there "s more demand "n the market #or

    NIRMA*s soap and deterent.

    >ompany sho'ld "$e d"##erent o##er to the cons'mer to attract them.

    >ompany sho'ld la'nch more attract"$e shaped soaps and d"##erent colored deterent. =o

    cons'mer can not sw"tch to other company.

    - 6( -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    Th"s year I ha$e $"s"ted the +NIRMA, %td. my $"s"t has been $ery pleas're and ha$"n lots o#

    learn"n #or me.

    They ha$e e##"c"ent manaement w"th the back 'p o# m"ddle manaement and the personnel o# thecompany. They are really dom"nat"n keen compet"t"on w"th ?'al"tat"$e prod'ct"on and ad$anced


    It was reat to see the plant and mach"nery operat"n a'tomat"cally. The manaement and

    work"n en$"ronment o# th"s 'n"t "s #a$orable.

    =hape and color "s most "mportant #eat're wh"ch cons'mer looks when they b'y the prod'cts.

    The #eat're o# the company "s $ery br"ht and they w"ll be able to compete "nternat"onal market.

    I# company "mpro$es the"r manaement str'ct're more than today*s manaement so company

    can "ncrease "ts prod'ct"$"ty more than other.

    >ompany sho'ld "ncrease the ad$ert"s"n epend"t're #or sell"n more prod'cts. I# the company

    "ncreases the ad$ert"s"n epend"t're "t can earn pro#"t more than today.

    At last I concl'de that the #eat're o# the company "s so ood. &eca'se the company*s t'rno$er

    "ncrease more and more "n e$ery years.

    - 64 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;

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    Re5e!e#2e B(($ :-

    >.&.;'pta 01stCd"t"on2 /'man reso'rce manaement s'ltan chand sons Cd'cat"on

    and p'bl"sher New Delh".

    K.Aswathappa 0New Cd"t"on2 /'man reso'rce manaement Tata Mc;raw /"ll

    p'bl"sh"n company %td.

    Mar8e%in manaemen%.

    &L Ph"l"p Kotler.

    M'"'6%#e$ :-

    Ann'al Report o# NIRMA %td. 06994 J 952.

    Ann'al Report o# NIRMA %td. 06995 J 9!2.

    Ann'al Report o# NIRMA %td. 0699! J 982.

    We1 7 $%e$ :-



    - 65 -

    C3>M N.RA@ =E;
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