Transcript
Page 1: CONTACT POINTS - Brigham Young University–Idahoemp.byui.edu/WatkinsM/applied/Fingerings/0... · at these contact points for upper ... FINGERINGS Chromatic F ... Use of this fingering

FingeringFundamentalsDr.MarkWatkins,BYU–Idaho

Thefollowingphotosprovideinformationthatmaynotbeobviousonafingeringchart.NoteconsiderationsproceedfromlowB‐flatthroughhighF‐sharp.

CONTACTPOINTSOctaveKeyThethumbcontactsthebuttononthefirstknuckleandpivots.

PalmKeysDepresspalmkeysatthesecontactpointsforupperregisterandpivotnotes.

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SideEContactclosetothelargeknuckleoftheindexfingerwhilekeepingthefingertipsangleddowntowardthepearls.

HighF‐sharpKeyDepressthehighF‐sharpkeywiththerighthandmiddlefinger.

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LOWNOTES

LowBtoA‐sharpPivotWhilefingeringBtiltthelittlefingertowardstheB‐flatkey.

LowBtoC‐sharpKeeplittlefingercurved.

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LowC‐sharptoBAnglelittlefingersothattiphitstheBrollerlikethefrontofaski.

LowC‐sharptoA‐sharpThelittlefingerstayscurvedandslidesontoA‐sharp/B‐flatkey(unlikemovingfromBtoA‐sharp/B‐flatandback).

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LowE‐flattoCAvoidstraighteninglittlefinger;keepitcurvedandanglemiddleknuckledown.

LowCtoE‐flatThefingertipslidesacrossrollerskeepinglittlefingercurved.

CROSSFINGERINGSChromaticF‐sharpInthekeysofC‐sharpandF‐sharpandforthechromaticscale,oneshoulddevelopproficiencywithboththestandardfingeringsforE‐sharptoF‐sharpandthechromaticfingering.Withtheadditionoftheoctavekey,thesefingeringsaresuccessfulinbothoctaves.

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FtoF‐sharpCrossFingering(onefingerliftswhiletheotherdepressesthuscrossingeachother)

ChromaticF‐sharp:Thekeyisdepressedbytherighthandringfinger.

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C‐sharpandF‐sharpMajor

SideCAnotherlocationonthesaxophonerequiringcrossfingeringskillisontheupperstackforthenotesBandC.Whencontinuingintotheupperregister,itismostcommontousethecrossfingering;however,iftheCisapivotnotewithsubsequentnotesreturningdownward,orforatrill,thesideCmechanismisoftenpreferred.Asabove,withtheadditionoftheoctavekeythesideCworks.BtoCCrossFingering

SideC:Depresskeywithindexfingermakingcontactclosetothelargeknuckle.Keepfingertipsangleddownandclosetopearls.

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CMajor

GMajor

B‐FLATTherearefourfundamentalfingeringsforB‐flat.Withtheadditionoftheoctavekey,allworkintheupperoctave.

1. Thebiskey:Manysaxophonistsconsiderthebiskeyfingeringtheirfirstchoiceanduseit

primarilyinflatkeys.Thekeyisdepressedwiththelefthandindexfingerbetweenthetwokeys.

WhenpivotingonCinflatkeys,thesideCfingeringmaybeusedtofacilitatespeedbuttheCwillbeflatandshouldnotbesustained.

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FandB‐flatMajor

Anotheroptioninthissituation,andfortrills,istousethesideB­flat(#2below)andliftfinger1fortheC.

E‐flatMajortriad,ascendinganddescending(bisfingering)

2. SideB‐flat:ThisisoftenthefirstB‐flatfingeringtaught.Likethebiskeyfingering,itiswellin

tuneandhasatonethatmatchesotherpitchesinthemidregister.DepressthesideB‐flatkeywiththelargeknuckleoftherighthandindexfinger.

ItisoftenusedwhenprecededorfollowedbyBnaturalasinthekeysofBandF‐sharpMajor.

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3. Left1,Right1(1&4):UseofthisfingeringshouldbelimitedtotheB‐flatMajortriadarpeggio(seeAdditiveTriadExercisebelow).Itislowinpitchanditstoneisnotasfocusedasthebisandsidefingerings.

B‐flatMajortriad,ascendinganddescending(1&1fingering)

4. Left1,Right2(1&5):TherearesituationssuchastrillsfromA‐sharptoBorpassagesthatdescendthroughBtoA‐sharpandreturnupwardthatthisfingeringwillfacilitatewell.Itisnotasfocusedasthebisandsideoptionsandisslightlylowinpitchbutitisbetterthan1&5.

5‐notePatterns:The1&2(1&5)fingeringapplieswhenthepatternstartsonA‐sharp.Althoughthedeffinitionaboveexplainsthatthe1&2(1&5)fingeringismostcommonwhendescending,pivotingonA‐sharp,andretruning;whenrepitionofthe5‐notepatternoccurstheA‐sharpbecomesapivotnoteandthepatternentersthescenario.OnemaystartonSideB‐flat(A‐sharp)andusethe1&2(1&5)uponsubsequentrepetitins.

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BMajor

F‐sharp

CROSSINGTHEBREAKCrossingthebreakpresentsparticularproblemsincludingmovingfromfewfingersonkeystomanyandmovingfromfundamentaltofirstovertoneharmonically.Therearespecialfingeringsthatsaxophonistsusetofacilitatecertainsituations.Playersmustpracticestandardandspecialfingeringswhenplayingpatternsthusaidingtheperformersflexibilityforbothwrittenandimprovisedlines.Thechallengesareamplifiedwhenonlyonenotecrossesthebreak,eitherascendingordescending.PalmkeypivotfingeringsfacilitateupwardcrossingsandtheLongC‐sharpfingeringhelpswithdescendingcrossings.Whencontinuingineitherdirection,standardfingeringsshouldbeused.PalmKeyPivotFingeringsTherearethreecombinationstoconsiderforstepwisemotion:CtoD,C‐sharptoD,andC‐sharp(D‐flat)toD‐sharp(E‐flat).

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1. CtoDPivot:Thisfingeringisflatinpitchbutoftenpreferredinlieuofthecumbersomequalityofcrossingthebreakandimmediatelyreturning.ThealternateDfingeringcarriesasomewhatunfocussedtoneatmezzopianoandlouderdynamiclevelsandshouldnotbesustained.Whenusedasasoftfingering,forpianoandpianissimolevels,tonecanbematchedtostandardfingeringsandthefingeringfacilitatesmoreaccurateintonation.Seethephotoaboveforcontactpointandhandposition.

5‐notePatterns:CandGMajor

FandB‐flatMajor

E‐flatMajor

2. C‐sharptoDPivot:Thisfingeringissharpbutmaybepreferableforasmoothertechnique.

Notably,thestandardDfingeringissharponmostsaxophonessocompensationisnecessaryregardless.Itshouldnotbesustained,asitisnotacceptablysonorous.

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DMajor

AMajor

3. C‐sharp(D‐flat)toD‐sharp(E‐flat)Pivot:LiketheC‐sharptoDpivot(ortrill)fingering,this

noteissharpbutmaybepreferableforasmootherfingertechnique.Thisfingeringshouldnotbesustained,asitisnotacceptablysonorous.LiketheDPivotfingering,thestandardD‐sharp/E‐flatfingeringisalsosharponmostsaxophonessocompensationisnecessaryregardless.

5‐notePatterns:EMajor

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A‐flatandD‐flat(C‐sharp)Major

F‐sharpandBMajor

LongC‐sharpMostoftenusedwhendescendingfromthesecondoctave,pivotingonC‐sharp(D‐flat)andreturning,thisfingeringcreatesasmoothtechnicalflowandsustainsthetimbreoftheupperregister.SomesaxophonistspreferthelongC­sharpfingeringinothersituationsforitstoneandintonation.FundamentalLongC‐sharpFingeringThelongC­sharpwillworkwithanyfingersdepressingrighthandkeys(fornotesincludingD,E‐flat,E,F,andF‐sharp).

5‐notePatterns:TheLongC‐sharpfingeringapplieswhenthepatternstartsonC‐sharp.AlthoughthedeffinitionaboveexplainsthattheLongC‐sharpfingeringismostcommonwhendescending,pivotingonC‐sharp,andretruning;whenrepitionofthe5‐notepatternoccurstheC‐sharpbecomesapivotnoteandthepatternentersthescenario.OnemaystartonOpenC‐sharpandusetheLongC‐sharpuponsubsequentrepetitins.DMajor

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AMajor

EandBMajor

F‐sharpandC‐sharpMajor

AMajor,pivotonC‐sharp(LongC‐sharpfingering)

D‐flat/C‐sharpMajor,pivotonD‐flat/C‐sharp(LongC‐sharp)

FRONTFINGERINGS

Frontfingeringsserveasalternatesforpalmkeystofacilitatetechnique.Theyalsofunctionasthebridgetothealtissimoregister.ByuseoftheFrontFKey,onecanplayhighE,F,F‐sharp,G,andG‐sharp(onaltonottenor).Theekeysareconsideredthebridgetothealtissimo.Theirfundamentaltimbreandtoneproductioncharacteristicshavethequalityofaltissimo.Itisreasonabletoconsiderthemthefirstaltissimopitches.

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PivotindexfingeratthelargeknuckletodepressfrontFkey.

SopranoandAlto

Tenor

Baritone

Whenmatchingtonewiththenormal(non‐altissimo)rangeofthesaxophone,thepalmkeyfingeringsshouldbeusedifthefingertechniqueisfeasible.However,therearesituationsthatwarranttheuseoffrontfingerings.Theseconsiderationsincludetheflowofmelodiclineor

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enteringintothealtissimorange.Likethecrossingthebreakpivotfingeringsabove,asmooth,easysoundingtechniquemayover‐ridetimbre.Oneshouldpracticefrontfingeringsbyfirstmatchingwithpalmkeys.EPalmtoEFront

FPalmtoFFront

F‐sharpPalmtoF‐sharpFront

Soprano/Alto

Tenor/Baritone

Oneshouldpracticeallexerciseswiththestandardpalmkeyfingeringthroughoutandthenrepeatwiththefrontfingering.

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Whenprogressingfromapalmkeyfingeringtoalefthandpearlfingering,onecanoverlapthepearltomaintainamoresmoothtransition.Subsequentfingeringscanreturnthelefthandfingercontacttothepearls.

ExamplesCMajor

AMajor

FMajor

D‐flat/C‐sharpMajor

F‐sharp/G‐flatMajor


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