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Page 1: EARLY ADULTHOOD

EARLY ADULTHOODEARLY ADULTHOOD

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TRANSITION TO TRANSITION TO ADULTHOODADULTHOOD

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AdulthoodAdulthood

• Physical developmentPhysical development• Complete physical Complete physical

growth and maturationgrowth and maturation• pleasant body proportions pleasant body proportions

(no more the gangly and (no more the gangly and pimpled faced teenager)pimpled faced teenager)

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• Peak physical performancePeak physical performance• Vitality, energyVitality, energy• Heart and blood vessels fully mature (*fist size, Heart and blood vessels fully mature (*fist size,

~72beat/minute)~72beat/minute)• Maximum brain size and weightMaximum brain size and weight• Respiratory system slower and deeper (~ 12-20 Respiratory system slower and deeper (~ 12-20

breaths/minute)breaths/minute)• Senses – little change, not much impact on function.Senses – little change, not much impact on function.• However, the maximum performance does not last However, the maximum performance does not last

long. Sedentary lifestyle long. Sedentary lifestyle physical deterioration physical deterioration

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Health and lifestyleHealth and lifestyle

• Most young adults spend on eating out and Most young adults spend on eating out and socializing outside (Malaysian Household socializing outside (Malaysian Household Expenditure Survey).Expenditure Survey).

• Eating right is most important during adult life. Eating right is most important during adult life. (*some can still get away with poor eating and (*some can still get away with poor eating and exercise but not for long)exercise but not for long)

• Regular exercise is important to avoid early onset Regular exercise is important to avoid early onset of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.

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DIFFICULTIESDIFFICULTIES

• Becoming an adult is a Becoming an adult is a complicated processcomplicated process

• Trade unions may require Trade unions may require long periods of long periods of apprenticeship.apprenticeship.

• One is denied adult One is denied adult membership in that membership in that society until the society until the preparatory requirements preparatory requirements of a group are fulfilled of a group are fulfilled

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PASSAGES & RITESPASSAGES & RITES

• Primitive societies have Primitive societies have definite rites of passages definite rites of passages through which children through which children become adults.become adults.

• Example: driver’s license Example: driver’s license test, school graduation test, school graduation ceremony, working and ceremony, working and have own financial, living have own financial, living separately, marriage separately, marriage

• Someone would through the Someone would through the event at the same time or event at the same time or sequentially sequentially

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SOCIALIZATIONSOCIALIZATION

• An important part of becoming an adult An important part of becoming an adult is the accompanying socialization.is the accompanying socialization.

• Involves learning and adopting the Involves learning and adopting the norms, values, expectations, and social norms, values, expectations, and social roles required by a particular group.roles required by a particular group.

• Part of socialization is anticipatory: Part of socialization is anticipatory: preparation for certain task.preparation for certain task.

• Resocialization may be necessitated by Resocialization may be necessitated by role changes, occupational transfer, role changes, occupational transfer, changes in family structure, relocation, changes in family structure, relocation, retirement etc.retirement etc.

• Preparation for new experiencePreparation for new experience

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DEVELOPMENTAL TASKSDEVELOPMENTAL TASKS

* Tasks that arise  from physical maturation. * Tasks that from personal sources. * Tasks that have their source in the

pressures of society.

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Developmental TaskDevelopmental Task

“ “a task which arises at or about a certain period in a task which arises at or about a certain period in the life of an individual, successful achievement of the life of an individual, successful achievement of which leads to his happiness and to success with which leads to his happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in the individual, disapproval by the society, and the individual, disapproval by the society, and difficulty with later tasks ” (Havighurst, 1952).difficulty with later tasks ” (Havighurst, 1952).

• Each society defines what task must be Each society defines what task must be accomplished and at what ages. accomplished and at what ages.

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Developmental tasks and social fields for preventive interventions over the life course. Source: Adapted from Kellam, S. G.; Branch, J. D.; Agrawal, K. C.; Ensminger, M. E. (1975) Mental Health and Going to School. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

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1. Achieving Autonomy1. Achieving Autonomy

• Detaching oneself from parents is one Detaching oneself from parents is one important step in becoming an adult.important step in becoming an adult.• During their teens, adolescents turn to their During their teens, adolescents turn to their

peers for companionship, emotional fulfillment peers for companionship, emotional fulfillment and guidance.and guidance.

• Establishing a separate residence helps in Establishing a separate residence helps in achieving autonomyachieving autonomy

• Achieving emotional autonomy is even Achieving emotional autonomy is even more important than physical separation. more important than physical separation.

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2. Molding an Identity2. Molding an Identity

• In detaching themselves from their In detaching themselves from their families, adolescents gain an opportunity families, adolescents gain an opportunity to form their personal identities.to form their personal identities.

• Identity formation is lifelong process of Identity formation is lifelong process of selection and assimilation of parental, selection and assimilation of parental, peer, social and self-perceptions and peer, social and self-perceptions and expectations.expectations.

• Establishing identity requires an Establishing identity requires an individual to evaluate personal assets and individual to evaluate personal assets and liability and learn how to use them. liability and learn how to use them.

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• Involves integrating various aspects of identity, resolving Involves integrating various aspects of identity, resolving conflicts among them, and developing a complete conflicts among them, and developing a complete personality.personality.

• Some aspects of identity take shape more easily than Some aspects of identity take shape more easily than others.others.• Physical & sexual identities are established earliest; vocational, Physical & sexual identities are established earliest; vocational,

ideological & moral identities evolved more slowlyideological & moral identities evolved more slowly

“ “Identity formation is the process of gaining authenticity; Identity formation is the process of gaining authenticity; that is, arriving at a stage of inner expansion in which we that is, arriving at a stage of inner expansion in which we know our potentialities and possess the ego strength to know our potentialities and possess the ego strength to direct their full reach” (Scheely, 1976) direct their full reach” (Scheely, 1976)

2. Molding an Identity (cont..)2. Molding an Identity (cont..)

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3. Developing Emotional Stability3. Developing Emotional Stability

• Developing the capacity to Developing the capacity to tolerate tensions and frustrations tolerate tensions and frustrations without undue upset or anxietywithout undue upset or anxiety

• Emotions is recognized as apart Emotions is recognized as apart of life and are either overcome of life and are either overcome or accepted.or accepted.

• The ability to control emotions The ability to control emotions is one measure of the degree of is one measure of the degree of maturity achieved.maturity achieved.

• Defense mechanisms are used to Defense mechanisms are used to help control emotionhelp control emotion

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4.4. Establishing and Establishing and Consolidating a CareerConsolidating a Career

• This task involves making:This task involves making:• An occupational commitmentAn occupational commitment• Completing one’s education Completing one’s education • Entering the work worldEntering the work world• Gaining proficiency in one’s workGaining proficiency in one’s work• Becoming economically independent Becoming economically independent

• Have an emotional as well as a Have an emotional as well as a social and economic need to social and economic need to achieveachieve

• Career success provides a sense of Career success provides a sense of fulfillment and worthfulfillment and worth

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5. Finding Intimacy5. Finding Intimacy

““Intimacy includes the ability to experience Intimacy includes the ability to experience an open, supportive, tender relationship an open, supportive, tender relationship with another person” (Newman & with another person” (Newman & Newman, 1984).Newman, 1984).

• Suggest the capacity to give oneself, to Suggest the capacity to give oneself, to share feelings and thoughts, and to share feelings and thoughts, and to established mutual empathy. established mutual empathy.

• Theory of love by Sternberg (1988)Theory of love by Sternberg (1988)

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Sage, N. A. (2001). Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love: Illustrated (On-Line). Available: http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/Overheads/TriangularLove.htm

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6. Becoming A Part Of 6. Becoming A Part Of Congenial Social GroupsCongenial Social Groups

• Participation in congenial Participation in congenial social group is a psychosocial social group is a psychosocial need.need.

• This process, begun in This process, begun in childhood and continued childhood and continued during adolescence, is during adolescence, is consolidated during young consolidated during young adulthood. adulthood.

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7. Selecting a Mate and 7. Selecting a Mate and Adjusting to MarriageAdjusting to Marriage

• Trends in marriage and family life cycleTrends in marriage and family life cycle

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7. Selecting a Mate and 7. Selecting a Mate and Adjusting to MarriageAdjusting to Marriage

• The earliest years of marriage The earliest years of marriage the most difficult , requiring the most difficult , requiring extensive adjustments and extensive adjustments and readjustments as couples learn readjustments as couples learn to live together harmoniously. to live together harmoniously.

• Seriously committed to Seriously committed to making their marriages work making their marriages work

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8. Establishing Residence and 8. Establishing Residence and Learning to Manage a HomeLearning to Manage a Home

• Must decide where and in what Must decide where and in what type of housing to live.type of housing to live.

• Must choose between urban, Must choose between urban, suburban, or rural areassuburban, or rural areas

• Select an apartment or other Select an apartment or other rented unit, condominium, rented unit, condominium, single-story etc. single-story etc. • Try to save money toward to Try to save money toward to

purchase of their own homepurchase of their own home

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9. Becoming a Parent and 9. Becoming a Parent and Rearing ChildrenRearing Children

• The number of persons remaining The number of persons remaining voluntarily childless are voluntarily childless are increasingincreasing

• Others turn attention to becoming Others turn attention to becoming parents and raising a familyparents and raising a family

• Requires major economic, social Requires major economic, social and emotional adjustments as and emotional adjustments as family responsibilities increase family responsibilities increase and marital roles are realignedand marital roles are realigned


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