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Slide 1

Hc vin Nng nghip Vit Nam***Khoa Mi trng B mn: Qun l mi trng

Nhm 7Hin trng mi trng nng thn Vit Nam

t vn T xa n nay Vit Nam lun l mt nc nng nghip vi 26371,5 nghn ha t nng nghip (theo Tng cc Thng k nm 2012) v 56.8% ngi lao ng theo ngh nng. Nng nghip l mt ngnh rt quan trng, n khng ch gii quyt vn lng thc cho hn 90 triu ngi dn m cn gp phn vo vic pht trin kinh t vi GDP chim 20.1% tng GDP ca c nc. Chnh v vy hin nay trong sn xut nng nghip ngi nng dn ch ch trng nhiu n nng sut sn lng thu c m qun mt n vic bo v mi trng. Mi trng nng thn Vit Nam ang b nhim v suy thoi nng n.

Hin trng mi trng nng thn Vit NamHin trng mi trng khng khHin trng mi trng ncHin trng mi trng tHin trng sinh vtHin trng con ngi

Hin trng mi trng khng kh Cht lng mi trng khng kh nng thn hin nay cn kh tt, rt nhiu vng cha c du hiu nhim. Tuy nhin,hin nay cht lng khng kh ang c xu hng xu i .Cht lng mi trng khng kh xu i do nhiu nguyn nhn.

Hin trng mi trng khng kh KHU VC CHN NUI Vit Nam th chn nui gia sc chim t trng cao nht vi 5.54 triu con b, tru l 2.9 triu con v cu d l 1.3 triu con. 37% CH4, 65% NOx, 9% CO2 trn ton cu l t kh thi ca gia sc trong 71% thi ra t b, 4.38% t tru, 5.1% t d cu, cn li l vt nui khc (theo FAO)Ngoi ra th cc cht thi t l m gia sc phn hy gy mi hi thi kh chu.

Hin trng mi trng khng khKhu vc ng rungNgoi cc kh thi nhim do sinh l vt nui gy ra, cn lng kh thi (NO,CO2,CH4 ) t t trng la ( 0,8 g CH4 /m2 /ngy ), c (142microgamNO/m2/gi), hoa mu, t rm, rc u cha c bin php x l. Hot ng t rm r: hng nm c mt lng ln rm r c t -> mt lng kh CO2 ,CH4,NOx,SOx khng l gy nhim khng kh, to ra nhng m khi m che ph kn c mt vng rng ln.

Hin trng mi trng khng kh

Hot ng t rm rThnh ph H Ni b bao ph bi khi t rm r t cc vng xung quanh.

Hin trng mi trng khng khKh thi t cnh ng la: rung la ngp nc, trong iu kin ym kh s sinh ra kh metan- mt cht kh nh knh. M Vit Nam li sn xut lng thc ch yu da trn vic trng la nc.Mi phn bn, thuc tr su gy kh chu cho con ngi, nh hng n ng h hp. Nhng nm 1985, ch khong 6500-9000 tn thnh phm quy i v lng thuc s dng bnh qun khong 0,3 kg hot cht/ha th t nm 1991-nay bin ng t 25000-38000 tn thnh phm quy i v lng thuc cng tng ln 0,67-1,01 kg hot cht /ha.

Hin trng mi trng khng khL gch th cng nng thn ,vic nhn thy cc l gch hot ng th khi ngn ngut l khng cn xa l,tuy rng nh nc c chnh sch ph b nhng vn cn rt nhiu l vn ngang nhin hot ng.Cc l gch hot ng c ngy ln m ,sc nng hm hp ta ra khng kh to nng CO2 rt cao,mi hng ,kht ,gy kh chu .

L gch th cng s dng than, ci t l s thi ra mi trng hng lot kh c hi, rt nguy him cho sc khe, mi trng sng nh :lu hunh ioxit (SO2), lu hunh trioxit (SO3), cacbon ioxit (CO2), cacbon monoxit (CO), nit oxit (NOx). Ngoi ra, cng to ra nhng hp cht hu c c hi khc, c kh nng gy t vong nh metan (CH4), benzen v cc hp cht hu c nhn thm rt c hi v c kh nng gy ung th...

Kh thi cc l gch lm nhiu tha la ,nng ng ,lng khoai b t vng sm mt ma ,cy n qu ri rng

Hin trng mi trng ncMi trng nc nng thn ri vo tnh trng bo ng ,hu ht cc ngun nc mt u b nhim ,n c minh chng bng vic nhng loi vt thy sinh nh tm, cua, c, c ch v thm ch ngay mt loi sng dai nh a nhng dng sng ,ao h trc y c rt nhiu th n by gi, ch cn thy li trong k c ca nhng gi cc vng thn qu .Ngun nc ngm cng b suy thoi do cc hot ng ca ngi dn.

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Hin trng mi trng nc nhim nc do cht thi sinh hotTheo Tng cc Mi trng B Ti nguyn v Mi trng th mi nm khu vc nng thn pht sinh trn 13 triu tn rc thi sinh hot, khong 1.300 m3 nc thi v 7.500 tn v thuc bo v thc vt x thng trc tip ra mi trng. Trong cht thi phn ln l cht hu c vi 65%, cn li l cc cht kh phn hy nh ti nilon, thy tinhV nhng cht thi ny gy nhim nc, khin nc cc con sng, h nhim bn, i mu en, bc mi hi thi.

Hin trng mi trng nc

Hin trng mi trng nc nhim nc do hot ng sn xut kinh tHot ng cc lng ngh: theo thng k nc ta hin c khong 1.300 lng ngh v 3.200 lng c ngh, m cc lng ngh tp trung ch yu vng nng thn. cc lng ngh sn xut thc phm th hm lng COD, BOD5, lun vt qu Quy chun Vit Nam hng chc ln.

Hin trng mi trng nc

Knh ti lng ngh lm bn Khc Nim, Bc Ninh

Knh ti lng ngh lm minDng Liu, Hoi c, H Ni

Hot ng nng nghip: T nm 2000 n nay, c tnh hng nm Vit Nam s dng khong t 35.000 n hn 100 nghn tn ha cht bo v thc vt. Lng ha cht ny cy trng khng s dng ht s b ra tri chy ra knh rch, sng, gy nhim nc. Bn cnh cc bao b ng thuc sau khi s dng b vt trc tip ra mi trng, lng ha cht d trong chai s ngm ra bn ngoi.

V thuc bo v thc vtx thng ra mi trngNng dn s dng thuc

Hin trng mi trng ncNui trng thy sn: Din tch nui trng thy sn Vit Nam l 1.037 triu ha vi sn lng c nm c tnh khong 3.21 triu tn. Nui trng thy sn tp trung nhiu BSCL. Tuy em li ngun li nhun cao nhng nui trng thy sn cng khin mi trng nc b nhim. V d ring sn xut c da trn BSCL x trc tip ra nc khong 1.593.750 tn cht thi hu c. Ngoi ra do thc n d cng b lng xung y h ao, v vo cui v th ngi dn thng no vt thi thng ra sng rch.

Hin trng mi trng tThoi ha t Do hin tng xi mn ra tri: Lng ma hng nm Vit Nam l tng i ln, trung bnh t 1500-2000 mm/nm, cng vi a hnh nhiu i ni nn hng nm hn 1 triu ha t b xi mn tr si , laterit ha. Theo B Nng nghip, hng nm t i ni min Bc nc ta b tri trung bnh 1 cm t mt, ngha l 1 ha t hng nm mt i 100 m3tng ng 100 tn, trong c khong 6 tn mn (tng ng 100 tn phn chung) v 300 kg N (tng ng 1,5 tn sulfat m).Ngoi yu t t nhin th xi mn t cn do con ngi gy ra nh cht ph rng ba bi.

Hin trng mi trng t

Hnh nh t b xi mn

Hin trng mi trng t t b nhim mn: C khong 1 triu ha t b nhim mn Vit Nam, chim 3% din tch t t nhin c nc. Nguyn nhn l do mui trong nc bin, nc triu hay cc m mui trong c cc cht c nh Na+ , K+, Cl-, SO42-. Bn cnh vic nui tm hay sn xut mui cng khin t b nhim mn.

Cnh ng mui

Hin trng mi trng tt b nhim phn: C khong 2 triu ha t b nhim phn, chim 6% din tch t t nhin Vit Nam. t nhim phn t cc rn phn theo dng nc ngm lan truyn n cc v tr khc nhau gy nhim phn. Trong t nhim phn, nng cc cht Fe2+, Al3+ trong t tng cao.

Hin trng mi trng t nhim t do rc thi: Ch 30-40% lng rc thi nng thn hin nay c thu gom. Tuy nhin din tch cc bi rc ch t 200-300 m2 v vn cha c bin php x l trit ngoi vic chn lp v t. Rc thi sinh hot thng rt kh tiu nh ti nilon phi mt n trm nm mi b phn thnh cc mu nh. Chn lp rc thi khin t b u c bi lng ln cc cht hu c c hi.Bn cnh lng cht thi rn t cc lng ngh cng khin t b nhim cc kim loi nng nh Pb, Cd, Hg

Hin trng mi trng t

Rc sinh hot vt ba bi ti C Mau

Cht thi rn t l vi th cng Hi Phng

Hin trng mi trng tHin nay trn cc cnh ng nng thn trn ngp cc loi bao b v thuc bo v thc vt do ngi dn s dng trc tip vt ra.

Hin trng sinh vtXut hin cc loi sinh vt ngoi laiCy mai dng hay cn gi l cy trinh n m ly. Cy mai dng c ngun gc t vng nhit i chu M v c du nhp vo chu t cui th k XIX. Chng pht tn v ln u c ghi nhn BSCL vo nm 1979, ti huyn Mc Ha, tnh Long An, v xut hin trn khp c nc. Ring Qung Tr din tch cy mai dng tng nhanh t 1.015 ha nm 2007 ln hn 10.000 ha nm 2012. Cy mai dng mc nhiu ln t t sn xut nng nghip.

Hin trng sinh vt

Cy mai dng

Hin trng mi trng sinh vtc sn: C ngun gc t lc a chu Phi, tr thnh loi c cn ngoi lai xm nhp vo Vit Nam t nhng nm 1960. n nay tr thnh sinh vt gy hi cy trng cn t vng ng bng cho n min ni v l thc n ch yu ca chng.

Hin trng sinh vt

Cy lc bnhc bu vng

Hin trng v con ngi Vit Nam, s dn sinh sng vng nng thn hin c khong 60834,0 nghn ngi, tng 0,55% so vi nm 2012.Khong 48% dn s nng thn lm ngh nng.C s h tng: ng huyn c chiu di tng cng trn 140.000km, trn 300 chic cu c chiu di trn 400m, ng lng x trn 130.000km, ng chuyn dng gn 900km, ng sng l 35.700km. Tnh chung c nc t 0,45km/km2 v 1,9km/1000 dn.S dng nc: 11,7% ngi dn c s dng nc sch, 31% s dng nc ging khoan, 31,2% dng nc ging o, 11% dng nc ao h.

Hin trng v con ngiSc khe: hin nay ngi dn nng thn ang phi gnh chu hu qu t vic cht lng mi trng suy gim. C th l hng lot cc lng ung th mc ln.VD: Lng ung th Thch Sn, Lm Thao, Ph Th. Nguyn nhn l khu vc ny l ni t hng trm nh my gch. T nm 1991 n nay c ti 106 ngi cht v ung th cc loi. 90% h gia nh trong x u c ngi cht v bnh ung th. Theo iu tra th nc, khng kh, t y b nhim nng n. Ngay c rau v c cng b nhim phng x Thalium.

Hin trng v con ngiTheo iu tra ca Cc Y t d phng v mi trng Vit Nam th hng nm c trn 5000 trng hp nhim c do thuc bo v thc vt phi cp cu ti cc bnh vin v c hn 300 trng hp t vong.

Hin trng v cng tc QLMT v cch ci thin mi trng nng thnTn ti v kh khn trong cng tc QLMT ti nng thn:Thiu ngn sch, kh khn trong vic thu ph rc thi.Thiu nhn lc thc hin cng tc v mi trng.Ngi nng dn khng nhn thc c tm quan trng v vn mi trng.H thng qun l mi trng nng thn cp huyn, x mi c hnh thnh. thc bo v mi trng ca cn b cng nh ngi dn cn cha cao.

Hin trng v cng tc QLMT v cch ci thin mi trng nng thnMt s gii php ci thin mi trng nng thn:S dng ch phm sinh hc EMC x l, kh mi, v sinh chung tri chn nui.Xy dng h thng t chc qun l v mi trng nng thn t trung ng n a phng.Xy dng h thng vn bn quy phm php lut v chnh sch.Nng cao nng lc mng li quan trc mi trng.Nng cao nng lc qun l v mi trng nng thn trong cc lnh vc.o to cn b a phng.Nng cao nhn thc ca ngi dnTng cng kinh ph ca nh nc.

Kt lun nhim mi trng nng thn l mt vn cp bch v thit thc. Qua phn tch mt vi vn trn chc hn chng ta thy c phn no thc trng v nhng hu qu ca nhim mi trng nng thnVit Nam hin nay, l nhng yu t nh hng nghim trng n cuc sng con ngi. T , chng ta nhn r c thc trch nhim to ln ca bn thn trong cng tc bo v mi trng, ng thi thc y s nghin cu tm ti cc bin php x l cht thi c hi gy nhim mi trng nhng song song vi n vn pht huy kh nng sn xut, cnh tranh ca hng hoVit Nam. ngha quan trng hn rt ra t bi tiu lun l: con ngi lun phi bo v mi trng ni chung, hy gi cho tri t lun xanh - sch - p bi y chnh l ngi nh chung ca chng ta.

Cm n lng nghe!


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