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09a memory

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  • 1.Memory

2. Paul Broca : From Phrenology to LocalizationPaul Broca 1861 3. Association Cortices Three association areasthe prefrontal, parietal temporal occipital, and limbicare involved in cognitive behavior planning, thinking, feeling, perception, speech, learning, memory, emotion, and skilled movements. 4. Penfield on one occasion electrical stimulation of the temporal lobes produced what he called an experiential response a coherent recollection of an earlier experience But all of the patients Penfield studied had epileptic seizure foci in the temporal lobe, and the sites most effective in eliciting experiential responses were near those foci. 5. The medial temporal lobe and memory storage More convincing evidence that the temporal lobes are important in memory emerged in the mid 1950s from the study of patients who had undergone bilateral removal of the hippocampus and neighboring regions in the temporal lobe as treatment for epilepsy (Brenda Milner) 6. The Distinction Between Explicit and Implicit Memory 7. Priming 8. Multi-store (Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model 1968) 9. Sensory Memory 10. Short Term Memory The Percentage of Information Maintained in the Short-Term Store Over 18 Seconds (Fernald, 1997, p. 237). 11. The working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch 1974) 12. Working Memory Is a Short-Term Memory Required for Both the Encoding and Recall of Explicit Knowledge 13. Consolidation of Memory 14. Rehearsal Enhances the Transference of Short-Term Memory into Long-Term Memory 15. New Memories Are Codified During ConsolidationSimilar types of information are pulled from the memory storage bins and used to help process the new information. The new and old are compared for similarities and differences, and part of the storage process is to store the information about these similarities and differences, rather than to store the new information unprocessed. Thus, during consolidation, the new memories are not stored randomly in the brain but are stored in direct association with other memories of the same type. This is necessary if one is to be able to search the memory store at a later date to find the required information. 16. How Much Information Can We Remember? 17. Structural Changes Occur in Synapses During the Development of Long-Term Memory1. Increase in vesicle release sites for secretion of transmitter substance. 2. Increase in number of transmitter vesicles released. 3. Increase in number of presynaptic terminals. 4. Changes in structures of the dendritic spines that permit transmission of stronger signals. 18. Long Term Memory 19. Characteristics of Long-Term Memory 20. Hippocampus is the seat of Consolidation 21. The anatomical organization of the hippocampal formation. 22. The role of the hippocampus in memory 23. The Long-Term Storage of Information 24. Explicit Memory Is Stored in Association Cortices 25. Semantic (Factual) Knowledge Is Stored in a Distributed Fashion in the Neocortex 26. Selective lesions in the posterior parietal cortex produce selective defects in semantic knowledge 27. Face recognition is from posterior temporal cortex 28. Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge 29. Episodic (Autobiographical) Knowledge About Time and Place Seems to Involve the Prefrontal Cortex Source amnesia. : the ability to associate a piece of information with the time and place it was acquired is at the core of how accurately we remember the individual episodes of our lives, a deficit in source information interferes dramatically with the accuracy of recall of episodic knowledge 30. Explicit Knowledge Involves at Least Four Distinct Processes1. Encoding2. Consolidation3. Storage4. Retrieval 31. The Importance of Association in Information Storage 32. Implicit Memory Is Stored in Perceptual, Motor, and Emotional Circuits 33. Certain Forms of Implicit Memory Involve the Cerebellum 34. Emotional Memory stored in Amygdale 35. Savant Syndromeusually diagnosed as severely retarded individualsspecial talent may be in calculation, history, art, language, or musicare 36. Memory Aging and Brain Size 37. Forgetting 38. Alzheimer's Disease 39. Tip of the Tongue (TOT) 40. Thank you