9 History - Movement of people - Agricultural Revolution

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MOVEMENT OF PEOPLEYEAR 9 historyMiss newman

Agricultural revolution

The Agricultural Revolution caused British people to move from villages to towns and cities to create a cheap labour force.

Lets brainstorm and then investigate the key events of the Agricultural Revolution.



Mind map: what do you know about this term?

Concept mapping FOR_VTeacher to create a concept map to represent the various ways the agricultural revolution caused British people to move from villages to towns. Information resource: History 9, p46-56 *** SCAN

Teacher explanation and class discussion of each aspect for the concept map.

HT5.1, HT5.2, HT5.9, HT5.10, IQ3,



TheAgricultural Revolutionwas a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that began around the turn of the 18th century and continued until the early 19th century in Britain and Europe.

There were three key changes:

Bigger farms (through enclosures and land reclamation

Better equipment

Better techniques (crop rotation and breeding)



Bigger farms

The passing of the Enclosure Laws limited the common land available to small farmers in 1760. Many small individually owned farms were bought or taken away from poorer farmers and turned into large enclosed farms for richer farmers.

This led to more people looking for homes and work to feed their family.

Farms also increased as land was reclaimed through clearing forests, draining marshlands and introducing new techniques to enrich poor soil to make it useable.



Bigger farms



Better Equipment

The Seed Drill (1700): Jethro Tull invented this to plant seeds in a neat row. This improved germination by making furrows, dropping seed into them, and covering them. More efficient with time and seeds.



Better Equipment

Athreshing machineorthresheris a piece offarm equipmentthat threshesgrain - it removes theseedsfrom thestalksandhusks by beating the plant to make the seeds fall out. Before this machine,threshingwas done by hand and was very laborious and time-consuming, taking about one-quarter of agricultural labour by the 18th century.Early threshing machines were hand-fed and horse-powered. They were small by today's standards and were about the size of an uprightpiano. Later machines weresteam-powered, driven by aportable engineortraction engine.1786 - first threshing machine invented by Scottish engineerAndrew Meikle.1810 - Isaiah Jennings created a small thresher that doesn't harm the straw1834 - John Avery and Hiram Abial Pitts - automatically threshes and separates grain from chaff

Threshing machine from 1881TheSwing Riotsin the UK were partly a result of the threshing machine.

These farm labourers had faced unemployment for a number of years due to the widespread introduction of the threshing machine and the policy of enclosingfields.

As rich tenant farmers introduced efficient agricultural machine, they no longer needed the thousands of men that previously tended the crops, only a few would suffice. As there was an oversupply of farm workers, wages were progressively lowered.

The farm labourers finallyrevoltedin 1830. With fewer jobs, lower wages and no prospects of things improving for these workers the threshing machine was the final straw, the machine was to place them on the brink of starvation. The Swing Rioters smashed threshing machines and threatened farmers who had them.

The riots were dealt with very harshly. Nine of the rioters were hanged and a further 450 weretransportedtoAustralia.



Better Techniques: Crop Rotation

When fields were left empty, soil becomes fallow (empty of nutrients).

A new crop rotation system was introduced which allowed the lands to be used continually, improving the nitrogen in the soil by growing four different crops over four years.



Better Techniques: selective breeding



Effects of the Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural production increasedIncreased production of food helped create a rapid growth of populationLarge farms began to dominate agriculture with machines and scientific methods. Farming became big business.Small farms declined farmers declined farmers moved to the cities populations of the cities increased rapidly


Ict task: Does the punishment fit the crime?

1. Research crime and punishment in Britain from 1750-1900.

2. Create VIPs from your readings. You can do this: a) on your computer using Word or OneNote make sure you save to a USB or email to your teacher: alexandra.newman@det.nsw.edu.au; orb) by writing the VIPs in your workbook.

3. Make sure you reference the website that you got each piece of information from.

Helpful websites: - - -

ICT Task / VIPs Students investigate the concept "Does the punishment fit the crime?

Teach students how to save to a USB and/or attach & send an email if not sureExplain reference the website if necessary

Additional websites: - - -12

Does the punishment fit the crime?

Discussion: what is a TEEEC paragraph?Review VIP points collect last lessonClass to create common introduction paragraphStudents t


Students create TEEEC paragraphs to collate & communicate VIPs identified from ICT task last lesson.

Discussion: what is a TEEEC paragraph?Individually review VIP points collect last lessonDiscuss the first paragraph that all students will copy - break down first TEEEC paragraph. Model model this paragraph on the board for the class. Class to write in workbooksGuide - students to choose their next VIP point. Break down how the topic sentence could be written on the board. Break down each element (Example, Elaborate, Extend, Connect) to guide students through their second TEEEC paragraph. Independent students to choose their next VIP point and attempt independent 13

City overpopulation = prison overpopulation

England's prisons are over-crowded.

Numbers are swelled by debtors and in the later part of the century prisoners of war from the conflicts with Napoleonic France.

Derelict ships or "hulks" in the Thames and southern ports are used as floating prisons

In response to the severe pressure on the prison system - and as an apparently more humane punishment than execution - transportation to North America is developed.



READ Slave Trade

INSERT map hereSOURCE: History 9, p41

Map analysis FOR_M & FOR_V

Class reads "Slave Trade" (Jacaranda World History Atlas, pp154-5) in small chunks.

Teacher stops the reading at certain points to check student understanding and use the map to provide a visual representation of the information.

HT5.1, HT5.2, HT5.9, HT5.10, IQ2, QLE2, QLE3, S3, 15


SOURCE: History 9, p41Using the information from reading & discussion of Slave Trade students START a timeline of activities that record the movement of slaves out of Africa


European migration to Australia

SOURCE: History 9, p41READ European Migration to Australia

INSERT map here

Map analysis

Class reads "European migration to Australia" (Jacaranda World History Atlas, pp170-1) in small chunks. Teacher stops the reading at certain points to check student understanding and use the map to provide a visual representation of the information.

HT5.1, HT5.2, HT5.9, HT5.10, IQ2, QLE2, QLE3, S3, , 17


SOURCE: History 9, p41Using the information from the reading & discussion of European migration to Australia students ADD TO their timeline of activities to record the movement of convicts & free settlers out of Britain.



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