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Adolescence (Pt 1)

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Physiological growth in adolescence.

Text of Adolescence (Pt 1)

  • 1. Adolescence (Part 1)

2. Definitions

  • Adolescence
  • Developmental stage between childhood & adulthood
  • Puberty
  • The maturation period during which the sexual organs mature
  • Menarche
  • The onset of menstruation
  • Spermarche
  • The first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid, usually around age 13
  • Primary Sex Characteristics
  • Characteristics associated with the development of the sex & reproductive organs
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • The visible signs of sexual maturity not involving the sex organs directly

3. Growth Spurt

  • Period of Rapid Growth
  • Boys grow 4.1 per year
  • Girls grow 3.5 per year
  • Girls begin about age 11
  • Boys begin about age 12

4. Puberty

  • Pituitary Gland
  • Puberty begins when the pituitary gland signals other glands to release hormones
  • Androgens (malehormones)
  • Estrogens (femalehormones)

5. Puberty in Girls

  • Environmental & Cultural Factors
  • Menarche signals the onset of puberty
  • Better nourished girls begin earlier
  • Stress is a factor
  • Primary & Secondary Sexual Characteristics
  • Changes occur in the vagina & uterus
  • Breasts develop & pubic hair grows

6. Puberty in Boys

  • Primary & Secondary Sexual Characteristics
  • Penis & scrotum growth, prostate gland & seminal vesicles enlarge along with the induction of spermarche
  • Pubic, underarm, & facial hair begin growing
  • The larynx enlarges & the voice deepens

7. Psychological Reactions

  • Body Image
  • Embarrassment about the growth & changes
  • Early/Late Maturation
  • Early maturation brings weight
  • Boys more popular esp. with adult males & tend to have more problems in school
  • Girls early maturation leads to uncomfortable feelings, less self-esteem
  • Late maturing girls have lower status for dates, etc. early on
  • By 10 thgrade, have better self-feelings & about bodies

8. Nutrition

  • Obesity
  • 1 in 5 adolescents is overweight
  • 1 in 20 is obese (more than 20% over the average weight)
  • The 2 reasons are lack of exercise and poor diet

9. Nutrition

  • Anorexia
  • Severe eating disorder in which an individual refuses to eat
  • 15% - 20% starve to death
  • Boys (10%) are becoming anorexic
  • Bulimia
  • Bingeing & Purging
  • Although the weight remains fairly normal, vomiting & diarrhea produces physical problems
  • Psychological & social factors involved

10. Brain Development

  • Growth of Neurons
  • Growth brings more complexity to interconnections & more sophisticated thinking
  • Neuronal Pruning
  • 1% - 2% per year with continued myelination
  • Areas of Development
  • Prefrontal cortex is fully developed in early 20s
  • Dopamine-producing & reacting areas become more developed
  • More sensitivity to stress, less susceptible to alcohol

11. Stress

  • Origins of Stress
  • Home, school, relationships, peers, intrapersonal, etc.
  • Number of stressful events can produce major illnesses
  • Can lead to psychosomatic disorders
  • Psychological, emotional,& physical interaction
  • Ulcers, asthma, arthritis,hypertension
  • Outcomes of Stress
  • Biological reaction
  • Release of hormones fromthe adrenal glands
  • Rise in heart rate, bloodpressure, respiration, &sweating
  • Long-term outcome
  • Reduction in the bodysability to deal with stressand fight off disease

12. Coping

  • Problem-focused Coping
  • Attempting to manage stress by directly changing the situation to make it less stressful
  • Emotion-focused Coping
  • Conscious regulation of emotion
  • Social Support
  • Assistance & comfort supplied by others
  • Defensive Coping
  • Unconscious use of strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation

13. Threats to Well-being

  • Illegal Drugs
  • 50% of U.S. high school seniors & 20% of 8 thgraders used marijuana in the past year
  • Reasons for use
  • Pleasurable experiences
  • Everyday pressures
  • Peer pressures
  • Thrill of doing somethingillegal
  • Addictive Drugs
  • Drugs producing a biological or psychological dependence leading to cravings
  • Physiological dependence
  • Psychological dependence

14. Legal Drugs

  • Alcohol
  • Binge drinking a tradition on college campuses
  • Reasons adolescents start drinking
  • Release inhibitions
  • Reduce tensions & stress
  • Family patterns & genetics play a role
  • Tobacco
  • Nicotine is 4 X more addicting than heroin
  • Produces psychological & physiological addiction
  • Produces a quick dependency
  • Produces pleasant emotional state
  • Seeing parents & peers smoking increases chances of starting

15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • AIDS
  • A leading cause of death among young people
  • Transmitted through body fluids
  • Other STDs
  • 1 in 4 adolescents will contract an STD before graduating high school
  • Chlamydia
  • A bacterial disease
  • Genital herpes
  • Virus-like cold sores or blisters
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Caused by a parasite
  • Gonorrhea & syphilis
  • Oldest known

Genital Herpes Syphilis