American Revolutions

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French & Indian War (Seven Years War in Europe)

French & Indian War (Seven Years War in Europe)French w/ Algonquin & Iroquois tribes vs. English w/ American colonists. British victory changed the boundaries of America in Britain's favor.

Thomas PaineUrged American colonists to support the movement for independence.

Pierre Toussaint L'OuvertureFormer slave that led a successful slave revolt in Hati. Was later captured by the French and imprisoned in France.

Jacques DessalinesFormer slave that proclaimed Hati a free republic and named himself governor-general for life.

HatiBecame first independent nation in Latin America by defeating the French.

Simon BolivarHelped establish a national congress which declared independence from Spain in Venezuela. Defeated the Royalists in civil war and won freedom for Gran Colombia.

RoyalistsSupporters of the Spanish crown that declared civil war in Venezuela.

Gran ColombiaModern day Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

Jose de San MartinCreole that led independence movement against Spain in Argentina. Helped Bernardo O' Higgins in Chile with his movement and Simon Bolivar in Peru.

Pedro IIRuler of Brazil, made coffee a major export, abolished slavery, which incensed the land owning class that revolted against him and established a republic.

Miguel HidalgoLed a revolt against the Spanish rule in Mexico, but the Spanish effectively resisted and executed him.

Jose MorelosPicked up where Miguel Hidalgo left off against loyalists in Mexico, but was turned on by the land owning class when he made clear his intentions to redistribute the land to the poor. Also was executed.

Treaty of CordobaSpain was forced to recognize and grant independence of Mexico and C. America, ending its dominance in Latin America.

Monroe DoctrineState of the Union address given by US President Monroe declaring the western hemisphere was off-limits to European aggression.