Amstrong Ch8

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Text of Amstrong Ch8

Microsoft Word - Amstrong Ch. 8 san pham dich vu va chien luoc .doc

Chng trnh ging dy kinh t Fulbright Nin kho 2006-2007

Tip th a phng Bi c

Nguyn l marketing Ch 8 Sn phm, dch v v

chin lc thng hiu

Kotler & Amstrong 1 Bin dch: Kim Chi

SN PHM, DCH V V CHIN LC THNG HIU

i vi mt ngi tht s tin tng, Krispy Kreme khng ch l bnh rn. l mt tri nghim. Mt khonh khc diu k. Vi tng chic bnh m cng ty bn ra, h to ra mt khch hng hnh phc. V tng khch hng hnh phc y nn nng mun k li vi ngi khc v tri nghim ca mnh. H ni nu bn khng n th mt chic bnh Krispy Kreme bc ng nng hi dinh dnh, th bn cha bit sng l g. Mt nh phn tch ni Nu bn cha bao gi nm th Krispy Kreme, chng ta s ni mt cch n gin th ny. Nhng chic bnh rn y, c bit loi bc ng nng hi c o, ngon tuyt vi. (Ch ti ni n c nh nhng m my mn mng bc ng.) Nhng khonh khc diu k ca Krispy Kreme xem ra quyn r tt c mi ngi. Nh phn tch ni Ai cng thch Krispy Kreme, t tr con 5 tui cho n ngi gi 75 tui, t ngi da trng n ngi da mu, t dn chu n n ngi gc Ty Ban Nha, t dn New England n ngi min Nam, t ngi California n dn New York.

Krispy Kreme ch trng vo nhng khonh khc diu k m chic bnh to ra cho n mc cng ty qu tht xc nh thng hiu cng ty thng qua s tri nghim ca hng. Theo li ca quyn sch Retail Environment m t chi tit thit k ca hng mi: Thng hiu ca chng ti v s tri nghim Krispy Kreme ca khch hng l c s h tr chng ti rt nhiu. Khng g quan trng hn vic bo ton v pht trin ti sn qu gi ny. Nim am m dnh cho mi quan h thng hiu khch hng ny to nn nn tng cho thnh cng ca Krispy Kreme.

S tri nghim thng hiu Krispy Kreme mnh lit to thnh mt m ng nhng ngi nhit tnh hm m sn phm m hu ht cc i th cnh tranh ch bit m c. Ceres Wood, Ph gim c pht trin ca hng Krispy Kreme ni ngi ta xp hng hng gi ch mt ca hng mi m ca v h tht vui v h chuyn tr vi nhau, chia x nhng cu chuyn v Krispy Kreme tuyt vi. Ti cha bao gi thy bt k hin tng no thm ch ch gn ging vi tnh cm m m dn chng dnh cho thng hiu ny.

i vi nhiu ni, s xut hin ca mt ca hng Crispy Kreme l mt s kin n mng. Ngi tiu dng Clackamas, bang Oregon, cho mng l ng th mt ca hng Krispy Kreme mi vi biu ng v tng on ngi diu hnh ho hc. Khi mt ca hng mi m ngay ngoi Seattle, khch hng n nc cm tri qua m ngay trn h ph c l ngi u tin bc vo ca hng vo 5:30 gi sng hm sau. Khi Krispy Kreme xut hin ln u Denver, giao thng bui sng b n tc hng gi. Theo mt ngi tng thut:

H bt u xp hng trong bng m gi lnh hng gi trc khi ca hng m ca. Mt s ngi mc qun o ng, mt s ngi ko theo ging xp v ti vi, nhng ngi khc mang theo bia. Khi bnh minh bt u l dng v chic bng khnh thnh c ct, m khch hng in cung lao qua ca. Nhiu ngi t hn ang trong cn thm mun ca ngt, go ln khn c ging: Bnh rn Krispy Kreme! Nm ngoi cu chuyn xy ra Fargo, Philadelphia, Amarillo v hng

Chng trnh ging dy kinh t Fulbright

Tip th a phng Bi c

Nguyn l marketing Ch 8 Sn phm, dch v v

chin lc thng hiu

Kotler & Amstrong 2 Bin dch: Kim Chi

chc thnh ph khc Bc M. Nm nay n s xy ra Boston, Sydney v nhng ni khc. Tt c ch bi mt chic bnh rn.

Vi nhng ngi cha tng bit n Krispy Kreme, ch tn gi ny thi cng nhanh chng gii thiu chic bnh. Nhng m bo thng ip c truyn ti, cc ca hng nhng quyn a phng thng a vi chc hp bnh rn n mt trm pht thanh a phng, hay nh bn cng c th on c, n cc n cng an v trm phng chy. Khi mt ca hng mi m Phoenix, cnh st trng Joe Arpaio kht ting nghim khc nht nc M, ngi thi hnh lut ni ting lm cho t nhn khip s - l ngi u tin nm th mt chic bnh Krispy Kreme mi ra l. Trc mt rng ng knh truyn hnh, ng tht ln mt cu hon ho: Nhng chic bnh rn ny ngon n th, hn phi l tri lut. Vic qung b min ph nh th l chun mc ca Krispy Kreme. Chic bnh rn ngon lnh cng ng mt vai tr trang sc trong b phim Primary Colors v trn cc chng trnh truyn hnh nh NYPD Blue v The Tonight Show vi ngi dn chng trnh Jay Leno.

Nh vy, Krispy Kreme khng ch n thun bn bnh rn. Cng ty cn thn xy dng nhng khonh khc diu k cho khch hng, nhng khonh khc ang c mong i vi gn nh bt k ai trong dng hng thm ca mt ca hng Krispy Kreme. Gim c tip th Jennifer Gardner nhn xt: Ti tng thy mt ngi lao ng chn tay, mt b m mang thai, mt ngi i xe p, mt thng gia, v mt ph n c ch n trong mt chic t Rolls Royce sang trng, tt c u xp hng bn trong mt ca hng Krispy Kreme, v h chuyn tr vi nhau c nh nhng ngi bn lu ngy mi gp li. Jamie Karn, mt ngi hm m Krispy Kreme, ni: Bn phi tri qua mt ln. Bn phi n bit! Khng ch l bnh rn, Krispy Kreme tht s l s tri nghim ngt ngo ca khch hng. To ra nhng khonh khc diu k cho khch hng cng l mt tri nghim ngt ngo vi Krispy Kreme. Doanh s cng ty tng hn gp ba trong nm nm qua.

Sn phm

Bt k th g c th a ra th trng thu ht s ch , c mua v, s dng hay tiu dng m c th tho mn mong mun hay nhu cu.

R rng, bnh rn khng ch l bnh rn khi Krispy Kreme bn ra. Chng ny bt u bng mt cu hi c tng l n gin: Sn phm l g? Sau khi tr li cu hi ny, chng ta s xem xt nhng cch thc phn loi sn phm trn th trng ngi tiu dng v kinh doanh. K tip chng ta s tho lun cc quyt nh quan trng m ngi tip th a ra v cc sn phm ring l, cc tuyn sn phm (hay dng sn phm), v t hp sn phm. Sau chng ta s tm hiu nhng vn ht sc quan trng v cch thc xy dng v qun l thng hiu ca nh tip th. Cui cng, chng ta xem xt cc c im v yu cu tip th ca mt dng sn phm c bit: cc dch v.

Sn phm l g?

Mt my nghe nhc DVD Sony, mt chic t Ford Taurus, mt k ngh Costa Rica, mt tch c ph Mocha ca Starbucks, cc dch v u t trc tuyn chnh xc, v mt li khuyn ca v bc s gia nh tt c u l sn phm. Chng ta nh ngha sn phm l

Chng trnh ging dy kinh t Fulbright

Tip th a phng Bi c

Nguyn l marketing Ch 8 Sn phm, dch v v

chin lc thng hiu

Kotler & Amstrong 3 Bin dch: Kim Chi

bt k th g c th a ra th trng thu ht s ch , c mua v, s dng hay tiu dng m c th tho mn mong mun hay nhu cu. Sn phm khng ch l nhng hng ho hu hnh. Theo nh ngha khi qut, sn phm bao gm cc i tng vt cht, cc dch v, cc s kin, con ngi, a phng, t chc, tng, v t hp ca cc thc th ny. Nh vy, trong ton b quyn sch ny, chng ta s dng thut ng sn phm mt cch khi qut bao gm bt k hay ton b nhng thc th ny.

Do tm quan trng ca dch v trong nn kinh t th gii, chng ta s c bit ch n dng sn phm ny. Dch v l mt dng sn phm bao gm cc hot ng, cc li ch, hay s tho mn c cho bn m thc cht l v hnh v khng dn n s s hu vt g c. Cc v d bao gm hot ng ngn hng, khch sn, hng khng, dch v bn l, lp h s thu, v dch v sa nh. Chng ta s xem xt cc dch v mt cch chi tit hn trong chng ny.

Dch v

Bt k mt hot ng hay mt li ch m mt bn c th mang li cho bn kia m v bn cht l v hnh v khng dn n s hu mt vt g c.

Sn phm, dch v, v s tri nghim

Sn phm l yu t then cht trong hot ng tip th. Vic ln k hoch tip th hn hp (marketing mix) bt u bng vic nh hnh nhng hng ho cho bn mang n gi tr cho cc khch hng mc tiu. Vic cho bn ny tr thnh nn tng da vo cng ty xy dng cc mi quan h vi khch hng mang li li nhun.

Vic tip th cho bn ca cng ty thng bao gm c hng ho hu hnh v cc dch v. Mi cu phn c th l mt phn nh hay mt phn ln ca tng th mt hng cho bn. Trong mt trng hp cc oan, mt hng cho bn c th ch bao gm mt hng ho hu hnh thun tu, nh x phng, kem nh rng, hay mui khng c dch v no i km vi sn phm c. Mt trng hp cc oan khc l cc dch v thun tu, ch yu bao gm mt dch v. V d nh vic khm bnh ca bc s, hay cc dch v ti chnh. Tuy nhin, gia hai trng hp cc oan ny l s kt hp kh d ca nhiu hng ho v dch v.

Ngy nay, khi cc sn phm v dch v ngy cng tr nn chun ho, nhiu cng ty ang tin ti mt trnh mi trong vic to ra gi tr cho khch hng. to nn s khc bit cho sn phm cho bn, ngoi vic ch to sn phm v cung ng dch v, cc cng ty cn tm kim, tip th, v mang li nhng tri nghim ng nh cho khch hng.

S tri nghim lun lun quan trng trong ngnh cng nghip gii tr Disney t lu to ra hi c thng qua cc b phim v cng vin vui chi ca h. Tuy nhin, ngy nay, tt c cc cng ty ang hun c li cc hng ho v dch v truyn thng ca h to ra s tri nghim. V d, khch hng quen thuc ca Starbucks khng phi ch tr tin ung c ph m thi. Cng ty tht i khch hng bng nt thi v trn giy dn tng, bng ngi phc v mc tp d ng sau cc c my c ph hi, v bu khng kh bn trong m cng nhng hin i mang li cho khch hng cm gic phong lu v tho mn.

Chng trnh ging dy kinh t Fulbright

Tip th a phng Bi c

Nguyn l marketing Ch 8 Sn phm, dch v v

chin lc thng hiu

Kotler & Amstrong 4 Bin dch: Kim Chi

V bn khng ch mua sm ti ca hng Toys R Us qung trng Times thnh ph New York, m bn ang tri nghim n.

Bc vo khu vui chi Toys R Us qung trng Times tn hng ba mc vui v l thng ngay Broadway! Ngi trn vng u quay cao 60 foot vi cc cabin trang tr theo ch v cc nhn vt c sc. C cm gic nh mt bui l hi trong to nh bp b Barbie hai tng tuyt diu. Tn b qua x bnh ko vi kch thc to nh ngi tht. Nhn ngm k quan trong to nh Empire State ca LEGO. V c s tri nghim k nguyn Jurassic c xa, hy cho hi ch khng long T-Rex cao 20 foot, to hn ngi tht vi nhng bc i tht v ting gm r hoang d. Bn phi thc s nhn thy mi tin c!

Hnh 8.1 Ba cp sn phm

Sn phm tng thm

Giao hng v tn dng

Sn phm

thc t

Dch v hu mi

Thng hiu

Cc tnh nng

Li ch ct li

Mc cht lng

Thit k

Bao b

Lp t Bo hnh

Nhng cng ty tip th s tri nghim nhn thy rng khch hng tht s mua nhiu hn ch khng ch l sn phm v dch v. H ang mua nhng th m vic cho bn s mang li cho h.

Chng trnh ging dy kinh t Fulbright

Tip th a phng Bi c

Nguyn l marketing Ch 8 Sn phm, dch v v

chin lc thng hiu

Kotler & Amstrong 5 Bin dch: Kim Chi

Cc cp sn phm v dch v

Nhng ngi lp k hoch sn phm cn suy ngh v sn phm v dch v theo ba cp (xem hnh 8.1). Mi cp b sung thm gi tr cho khch hng. Cp c bn nht l li ch ct li, tr li cho cu hi Khch hng thc s ang mua g? Khi thit k sn phm, nh tip th trc tin phi nh ngha li ch hay dch v ct li gii quyt vn m khch hng ang tm kim l g. Mt ph n mua son mi s khng ch n thun mua mu