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Anatomy unit 3 cardio and respiratory system blood composition notes

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  • 1.ANATOMY Unit 3 Notes: Blood Composition

2. (1) Blood Purpose: Transport nutrients and waste throughout the body to their designated locations. Contains living and nonliving components: Living = Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells Nonliving = Platelets, Proteins, Plasma, Inorganic Compounds 3. (2) Blood Cells & Parts Red Blood Cells = Erythrocytes Carry oxygen-containing gases Use protein hemoglobin to bind with gases White Blood Cells = Leukocytes Part of Immune System Protect body against infectious agents Platelets Fragments of red blood cells Aid in clotting 4. (3) Plasma The liquid portion of blood. Made of mostly water, and various proteins and inorganic compounds (like salts and sugars). Important Plasma Proteins: Albumin Regulates osmotic pressure within blood. Fibrinogen and Globulin Aids in clotting. 5. (4) White Blood Cell Specialties White blood cells must be able to reach any area in body with infection. Leukocytes use: Positive Chemotaxis To locate infectious agents within body using the antibody-antigen response system. Diapedesis To travel through organs to reach the infectious agents. 6. (5) Types of White Blood Cells Neutrophils: The most common and active. First to respond to an infection site. Basophils: Release histamine during infection. Histamine dilates the blood vessels to increase blood flow. 7. Lymphocytes: Use antibodies and antigens. B Lymphocytes Produce antibodies to ID foreign cells. T Lymphocytes Respond to antibodies and find foreign cells. Monocytes: Present during chronic infection. A last responder when other white blood cells did not work. Eosinophils: Attack and engulf larger parasitic organisms. 8. (6) Anemia Anemia is when oxygen is not being carried to tissues. Causes for Anemia: Misshapen red blood cells Low hemoglobin concentration Low blood cell count General lack of oxygen in system Symptoms: Excruciating pains throughout the body. Extreme fatigue. Low endurance during physical activity. Loss of body heat easily. 9. Sickle Cell Anemia: Red blood cells are sickled shaped. Cannot bind with oxygen and often clog up blood vessels. Hereditary Spherocytosis: Red blood cells balloon out like basketballs. Cannot bind with oxygen and are destroyed by the spleen.

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