Argument vocab

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  • 1. Argument Vocab

2. Aristotles rhetorical triangle The study and art of using language effectively. 3. The rhetorical triangle sets out the guidelines for persuading someone:Pathos-Appeals to your feelings.Ex. "My dog just died so I couldnt do my homework!"Ethos- Appeals to someones sense of honesty or authority.Ex. "I swear on my life that is the truth."Logos- Appeals to someones sense of logic.Ex. I didnt have internet so i couldnt do my homework ongoogle docs. 4. Argument- verbal opposition; a process of reasoning or disagreementwhere different point of view are expressed. Ex. Explaining to a parent that your curfew should belater. Often used in debates, judicial trials, and in simpleeveryday communication.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQFKtI6gn9Y 5. Evidence- proof of something that can prove or disprovea point of view. It is the basis of stressing orasserting a standpoint. Ex. Cookies were stolen from a cookie jar. All that is left is a chocolate fingerprint on the table. 6. Warrant-authorization or justification to do something.Warrants are only granted when there is strongsuspision or evidenc. Ex. A mom going into her childs bedroom without permission. Her justification is that she is a mother(it may also be her house). Warrants allow police to access personal property.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-nt4Lujk9NE 7. "Warrant"Well Ive been judged Ive been a bug unknownI know all about it but my heart is strongIve been away been running to save my headYeah the warrants out and Im almost deadI wont say what Ive already said[x2:]Got to get awayYeah, the warrants on my headGot to get awayThey want me alive or deadIve thought a lot about the way that they fightCome through the phone lines, not man enough to face me 8. I can stop or argue about what they sayYeah the warrants out and Im not gonna payI said what Im gonna say[x2:]Got to get awayYeah, the warrants on my headGot to get awayThey want me alive or deadFear is like a fake friendIt warms you up and takes you inYou mouth the words but no sound comes outFear is like your best friendManipulates and takes you inYou mouth the wordsNo sound again 9. But you dont know betterYou dont know better[x4:]Got to get awayYeah, the warrants on my headGot to get awayThey want me alive or dead 10. Rhetoric-the study or ability to use effective language ormeans of persusion; the use of prose instead ofverse. Ex. When you consider all the cons, it seems to me that all the pros out weigh them.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G2Dtmhk6vJw 11. Speaker-a person who communicates in a formal waywith a sometimes large audience.-The speaker hold the audiences attentionduring an arguement, debate, etc. Ex. The president making his inauguration speech to the United States upon entering office as the president to let people know what he has done and what he is going to do. 12. Context-parts of a written or spoken body of words thatsurround a particular event, situation, etc. Ex. I go to the gym every morning. Sometimes it is cold, sometimes it is not. I enjoy running on the track. The gym is the best!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PK7P7uZFf5o 13. Confirmation-to make a words certain; something thatsupports, validates, or verifies the subject orconcept. Ex. Yes, we are going to school tomorrow. 14. Fallacy-a statement or argument based on a false orinvalid inference 15. Fallacy Continued... 16. Slippery Slope-a course of action that seems to lead inevitablyfrom one action or result to another withunintended consequences 17. Slippery Slope Continued... 18. Hasty Generalization-a logical fallacy of faulty generalization byreaching an inductive generalization based oninsufficient evidence Ex. The two weightlifters I have met bothtake steroids. Therefore, all weightlifterstake steroids. 19. Hasty Generalization Continued... 20. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hocthe logical fallacy of believing that temporalsuccession implies a causal relation. Ex. Crime rate has increased since drugs have become illegal. 21. Post Hoc Ergo Proctor HocContinued... 22. Genetic Fallacy-the fallacy of confusing questions of validityand logical order with questions of origin andtemporal order. Ex. Most Christians become Christiansbecause their parents are. 23. Genetic Fallacy Continued... 24. Begging the Claim-Begging the claim is what one does in anargument when one assumes what one claimsto be proving. Ex. Abortion is the unjustified killing of ahuman being and as such is murder.Murder is illegal. So abortion should beillegal. 25. Begging the Claim Continued... 26. Circular Argument-a discussion that makes a conclusion based onmaterial that has already been assumed in theargument Ex. "You cant give me a C! Im an Astudent!" 27. Circular Argument Continued... 28. Either/Or-logical fallacy in which the writer states thatonly two alternatives exist when in fact thereare more than two Ex. A mother may tell her child: "Eat yourbroccoli or you wont get desert." Ex."Either you are part of the problem orpart of the solution." 29. Ad Hominem-logical fallacy in which the writer attacks theperson who presents the issue rather than deallogically with the issue itself. 30. Ad Hominem Continued... 31. Bandwagon-a party, cause, movement, etc., that by its massappeal, or strength readill attracts followers. 32. Bandwagon continued...http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-G8fG1bKgQo&feature=player_embedded 33. Appeal to Reason -To seek to persuade or to reason withsomeone through the use of logical argument ordiscourse.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thzUR_mq6OY&feature=player_embedded 34. Bait and Switch- A form of fraud, most commonly used in retailsales but applicable to other contexts. First,customers are baited by advertising for aproduct or service at a low price. Second, thecustomers discover that an advertised good isnot available and are switched to a costlierproduct. Ex. An advertisement for a free chicken sandwich, but you actually have to purchase a side of fries and a drink. 35. McDonalds Commercialhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r9tyT--fuAA&feature=player_embedded 36. Stereotyping- A popular belief about specific types ofindividuals that are unusually unjust or unfair Ex. All women are bad drivers. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5- Sjld5yy3Q&feature=player_embedded 37. Biased or Prejudicial Statements- When a statement reflects a partiality,preference, or prejudice for or against a person,object or an idea. Ex. The association that black people are more related to crime. 38. Logos-Appeal to logic and reason.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WP9tkpMRD9s&feature=player_embedded 39. Ethos-The guiding belief or ideals that characterize anation, community, or ideology.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgVzAMQsP5o&feature=player_embedded 40. Pathos-Using words, objects, or ideas to create anemotional reaction.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQ_vcv5I_KA&feature=player_embedded 41. Ad Populum-Latin for "appeal to the people"; a technique of persuadingan audience by appealing to a common belief. Ex. "But officer, I dont deserve a ticket; everyone goesthis speed. If I went any slower, I wouldnt be going withthe stream of traffic." Hiter lid th Germans about how the Jews were bad andshould be exterminated. They beleved him and killedmillions in the Holocaust.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXXdXhNoDD4&list=FLbTCj4O_J5n5m17MKCLb43A&index=1&feature=plpp_video 42. Red Herring-Figurative expression in which a clue or piece ofinformation is intended to be misleading, ordistracting from the actual question; theinformal fallacy of presenting an argument thatmay in itself be valid, but does not address theissue in question. "I think there is great merit in making the requirements stricter for the graduate students. I recommend that you support it, too. After all, we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affected." 43. Straw Man-Also known as an "Aunt Sally"; component of an argumentand is an informal fallacy based on misrepresentation of anopponents position; to "attack a straw man" is to create theillusion of having refuted a proposition by replacing it witha superficially similar yet equivalent proposition andrefuting it without ever having, actually refuting theoriginal position. "Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I cant understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that." 44. Moral Equivalence-A term used in political debates, usually tocriticize any denial that a moral hierarchy canbe assessed of two sides in a conflict or in theactions or tactics of two sides. Claiming that Nazism wasnt as bad as Communism, by drawing a moral equivalence between the Holocaust, and the mass deaths under Maos Great Leap Forward, Stalins purges and gulags, and Pol Pots killing fields.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IqPzW63EWwc 45. Assertion/Claim-The declaration of an idea to persuade anaudience toward a particular belief; somethgdeclared or stated positively, often wth nosupport or attempt at proof. Ex. "All men are created equal." 46. Toulmin Method-Created by British philosopher StephenToulmin; an informal method of reasoning thatinvolves the data, claim, and warrant of anargument; identified elements of a goodpersuassive argument. Ex. "I drove last time, so this time it is your turn to drive." 47. Rogerian Method- Developed by Carl Rogers, an Americanpsyhologist; a conflict solving technique basedon finding common ground instead ofpolarizing debate; a negotiating strategy inwhich opposing views are described objectivelyand common goals are identified to reachagreement. "We both agree that littering is destructive." 48. Hegelian Method-A method of argumentation or exposition thatsystematically weighs contradictory facts orideas with a view to the resolution of their realor apparent contradictions; the philosophy ofHegel that places reality in ideas instead ofthings. "... the Stat