This is a presentation on meaningful learning and schema theory.
1. Ausubel Meaningful Reception Learning
2. Profile David P. Ausubel was born in 1918 Attended the University of Pennsylvania, taking the premedical course and majoring in Psychology In 1973 he retired from academic life to devote full time to his psychiatric practice His principal interests in psychiatry have been general psychopathology, ego development, drug addiction, and forensic psychiatry In contrast to Bruner, Ausubel believed that people acquire knowledge primarily through RECEPTION, NOT DISCOVERY.
3. Meaningful Reception Learnin hierarchically organized; that new information is meaningful to the extent that it can be related (attached, anchored) to what is already known. The overarching idea in Ausubel's theory is that knowledge is Ausubel stresses meaningful learning, as opposed to rote learning or memorization; and reception, or received knowledge, rather than discovery learning. (Ausubel did not contend that discovery learning doesn't work; but rather that it was not efficient.) Expository Teaching stresses what is known as Meaningful Verbal Learning verbal information, ideas, and relationships among ideas, taken together. Rote memorization is not meaningful learning, because material by rote is connected with existing knowledge. not DEDUCTIVE REASONING- from general ideas to specific cases. Concepts, principles, and ideas are presented and understood using
4. Advance Organizers Ausubels strategy always begins with an ADVANCE ORGANIZER. This is an introductory statement broad enough to cover or include all the information that will follow. 3 Purposes: They direct your attention to what is important in the coming material, They highlight relationships among ideas that will be presented They remind you of relevant information you already have
6. Expository While presenting new material Use beginning of lesson Presents several encompassing generalizations where detailed contents will be added later Example: In an English class, you might begin a large thematic unit on rites of passage in literature with a very broad statement of the theme and why it has been so central in literaturesomething like, A central character coming of age must learn to know himself or herself, often makes some kind of journey of self-discovery, and must decide what in the society is to be accepted and what rejected.
7. Comparative Comparative organizers activate (bring into working memory) already existing schemas. They remind you of what you already know Example: A comparative advance organizer for a history lesson on revolutions might be a statement that contrasts military uprisings with the physical and social changes involved in the Industrial Revolution; you could also compare the common aspects of the French, English, Mexican, Russian, Iranian, and American Revolutions (Salomon & Perkins, 1989).
8. Ausubels Meaningful Learning
9. Learning is based on the representational, superordinate and combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information. Concerned with how students learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in learning activities Meaningf ul Meaningf ul R R eceptionLearning eception Learning Theory Theory Meaningful learning results when new information is acquired by linking the new information in the learner's own cognitive structure A primary process in learning is subsumption in which new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure on a non-verbatim basis (previous knowledge)
10. The Processes of Meaningful Learning Derivative subsumption Correlative subsumption Superordinate learning Combinatorial learning
11. Derivative Subsumption Thisdescribesthesituationinwhichthenewinformationyou learnisanexampleofaconceptthatyouhavealreadylearned. PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE : Let's suppose you have acquired a basic concept such as "tree has green leaves, branches, fruits You learn about a kind of tree that you have never seen before persimmon tree (an edible fruit that resembles a large tomato and has very sweet flesh) - that conforms to your previous understanding of tree Your new knowledge of persimmon tree is attached to the concept of tree , without substantially altering that concept in any way
12. Correlative Subsumption Thisismore"valuable" learningthanthatofDerivative Subsumption,sinceitenrichesthehigher-level concept. Now, let's suppose that you encounter a new kind of tree that has red leaves, rather than green In order to accommodate this new information, you have to alter or extend your concept of tree to include the possibility of red leaves.
13. Superordinate Learning Imagine that you were well acquainted with maples, oaks, apple trees, etc., but you did not know, until you were taught, that these were all examples of deciduous trees. (of a tree or shrub) shedding its leaves annually. Inthiscase,youalreadyknewalotofexamplesofthe concept,butyoudidnotknowtheconceptitselfuntilitwas taughttoyou. ThisisSuperordinateLearning(athingthatrepresentsa superiororderorcategorywithinasystemofclassification).
14. Combinatorial Learning For example, to teach someone about pollination in plants, you might relate it to previously acquired knowledge of how fish eggs are fertilized. Thefirstthreelearningprocessesallinvolvenewinformation that"attaches"toahierarchyatalevelthatiseitherbelowor abovepreviouslyacquiredknowledge. Combinatoriallearningisdifferent;itdescribesaprocessby whichthenewideaisderivedfromanotherideathatisneither highernorlowerinthehierarchy,butatthesamelevel(ina different,butrelated,"branch"). Youcouldthinkofthisaslearningbyanalogy.
15. Principles of Ausubel's Principles of Ausubel's Meaningful Reception Meaningful Reception Learning Theory within a Learning Theory within a classroom setting classroom setting General ideas of a subject (general statement): Must be presented first then progressively differentiated in terms of detail and specificity. Instructional materials : should attempt to integrate new material with previously presented information Using comparisons and cross-referencing of new and old ideas.
16. Principles of Ausubel's Principles of Ausubel's Meaningful Reception Meaningful Reception Learning Theory within a Learning Theory within a classroom setting classroom setting Advance organizers : Instructors could incorporate advance organizers when teaching a new concept Examples : Instructors could use a number of examples and focus on both similarities and differences.
17. Instructional Implications Ausubel's theory is not particularly in vogue today, perhaps because he seems to advocate a fairly passive role for the learner, who receives mainly verbal instruction that has been arranged so as to require a minimal amount of "struggle". Nevertheless, there are some aspects of his theory that you might find interesting, can you name some?
18. Exercise: Strengths of the model Bruners Discovery Model Ausubels Expository Teaching Model Weaknesses of the model