Welcome to Module 6
04/01/15 1IAME, Bangalore
Documents and Reports Preparation of Business Documents Storage and Retrieval of information Formal Reports Research reports Project reports Business reports and Academic reports Presentation of Bibliography
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 2
Voice mail Records messages on a disk for later retrieval by the receiver. Eliminates telephone tag.
Groupware Allows several people at the same time to create documents, keep track of projects, route messages and manage deadlines. Allows teams to work interactively from their individual locations.
CD ROM database Massive storage ability. Offer multimedia applications, encyclopedia etc.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 3
Storage and Retrieval of information
Challenges to the Organization made by new technologiesEmailsUnderstanding the InternetEstablishing security
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 4
Storage and Retrieval of information
Business CommunicationDocuments and Reports
Informational reports offer data, facts, feedback, without analysis or recommendations
Analytical reports offer information and analysis. Can include recommendation.
Proposals offer structured persuasion for internal or external audiences
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 5
Identify your purpose Analyze your audience Choose your ideas Collect your data Organize your messages
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 6
Preparation of Business Documents
Plan, Write, Complete
Business CommunicationThree-step Process to Informational and Analytical
Reports Analyze the situation Define your purpose before you start writing( details next
Identify in advance, all the goals that you need to accomplish
Prepare a work plan Gather Information Determine whether you need to another research
project to collect necessary information Re use existing material
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 7
To update clients on the progress of the research project( progress report)
To develop goals and objectives( Strategic plan)
To identify customers and explain how the company will serve them (marketing plan)
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 8
Statement of purpose
WriteAdapt to your audience. Build a strong relationship with your audience by establishing your credibility and projecting your companys image. Control your style with a tone and voice appropriate to the situation
CompleteRevise the message. Edit and rewrite for clarity and
conciseness. Use suitable layout, professional appearance, combine text and graphics
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 9
Introduction Purpose or aim, sources, background, limits, brief
mention of results Body Present all facts accurately and impartially. Organize the report by inductive plan or deductive plan Emphasize important ideas Include visual aids like graphs, pictures so as to clarify
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 10
Use headings to guide reader through the report. In short reports use two or three levels of heading
Use topic sentences for most paragraphs, use an introductory paragraph that contains two or more divisions
Apply 7 Cs of writing principles.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 11
Consists of summary, recommendations Condense the text, evaluate conclusions, infer from
the text and offer recommendation Do not include any new material Usually list summary points in the same order as
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 12
Outlining the Major Sections
Decide the headings and subheadings While organizing the outline, determine the types of
heading, the degrees of headings, parallelism in the headings.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 13
Outlining the Major Sections
Regardless of the format you choose, the items in a list should be parallel. For example, if one list begins with a verb, all list should begin with a verb. If one item is a noun phrase, all should be noun phrase.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 14
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 15
Non Parallel Item Parallel Items
Identification of new foreign markets for our products
Identifying new foreign markets for our products
Issues regarding pricing Resolving pricing issues
Global Market strategies Developing our global market strategies
Parallel forms are easier to read and skim. You can create parallelism by repeating the patterns in words, phrases or entire sentences
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 16
Parallel words The letter was approved by Brad, Matt, Claudia.
Parallel phrases We are gaining market share in supermarkets, in departmental stores, and in specialty stores
Parallel sentences In 2008 we exported 30 % of our production. In 2007, we exported 55%.
Adding Headings and SubheadingsA heading is a brief title that tells readers about the content of the section that follows. Subheadings are subordinate to headings.
Organization : Headings show the reader at a glance how the document is organized. They act as labels to group related paragraphs together.
Attention : Headings grab the attention making the text easier to read.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 17
Connection : Using headings and subheadings together help readers see the relationship between main ideas and subordinates. Also indicates shift from one idea to the next.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 18
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 19
Process to Informational and Analytical Reports
Select the right medium Consider the need for commenting, revising , distributing,
and storing. Deliver reports in electronic format.
Process to Informational and Analytical Reports
Organize your information Use a direct approach if your audience is
receptive An indirect approach if audience is skeptical An indirect approach if you dont want to risk
coming across as arrogant
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 20
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 21
Analytical reports are used to assess opportunities, to solve problems, and to support decisions.
Reports to assess opportunities - Market analysis report are used to judge the likelihood of success for new products or sales initiatives by suggesting potential opportunities and identifying competitive threats and other risks.
Reports to solve problems Troubleshooting reports when there is need to understand why something isnt working properly.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 22
Reports to support decisions Feasibility reports
Clarifying the problem in an analytical report by determining what you need to analyze, why the issue is important , who is involved, where the trouble is located, and how and when it started.
Reports to monitor and control operations Operating reports provide feedback on a wide variety of an
organizations functions, including sales, inventories, shipments.
Personal activity reports provide information regarding an individuals experience during sales calls, market research trips.
Reports to implement policies and procedures Policy reports to share new procedure to colleagues Handbook, policy manual
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 23
Reports to demonstrate compliance Quarterly and annual tax reports. Compliance with government regulations for particular
industries using hazardous materials etc.
Reports to document progress Supervisors, investors, and customers frequently expect to
be informed of the progress of projects. Include comparisons of budgeted versus actual expenses, and list of ongoing concerns and risks.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 24
Transmittal letters are often used to accompany drafts or contracts that are being sent for review or approval. They also accompany contracts with signatures.
Generally speaking, a transmittal letter accompanies a document and explains what the document is, why it should receive the reader's consideration, and what the reader should do with it.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 25
Letters of transmittal provide the opportunity to remind a reader of a report title and to highlight points of interest.
The letter may also contain sensitive or confidential information that is related to, but not a part of, the report.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 26
Formal reports/ Long reports - More detailed, more complex.
Recognize clearly issues, problems, purpose Realize who your audience or readers will be. Get an idea of sources to which you may turn. Understand the time frame for report completion. Be sure of financial and time constraints: costs, travel. Ask if the authorizer wants a progress report.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 27
Cover and external title Title fly and Internal title After title fly is the internal title page with :1. Title as stated on the exterior cover2. Recipient of the report3. The Preparer4. The date Letter or Memorandum of Transmittal
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 28
Transmittal 1. Authorization Include the name of the group or individual
who requested the report. Include the date.2. Transmittal details Language has to conversational.
Polite. Formal language.3. Background, Methodology Give details of research
methods that you employed.4. Highlights Consider whether your reader is favorably
disposed to your recommendation. Use judgment. 5. Courteous ending Acknowledge those who assisted.
Suggest a willingness to respond to further questions.6. Contact information Personal or email id.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 29
Table of contents Table of tables Include illustrations, statistical data,
clarifying end notes, visuals, bibliographic citations. Visuals or Figures - To see more micro and detailed
graphics to supplement the text. Executive Summary Well organized. Often the most
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 30
A list at the end of your assignment that includes works for background or further reading as well as those you have referred to in the text.
The terms citing (or citation) and referencing mean the same thing, and are often used interchangeably. Citing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardised method of acknowledging that source. The full details of the source must be given.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 31
Bibliographies are often not a part of business reports.
It is included at the end of the document.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 32
Footnotes and Endnotes
Gives credit to the source you used. Helps in improving your credibility. Also helps in convincing your readers that your data are trustworthy.
Business CommunicationImportant Points
Write the first draft. Introduction not more than 1 or 2 page. Body or text Create chapters with each chapter having its
own division. Conclusion, Summary Terminal section. Write draft,
memo of transmittal. Set table of contents(rough draft). Edit and revise for clarity. Typing the final draft Be consistent. Overall appearance Spacing, margins, pagination.
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 33
Business Communication Prefatory parts Use your companys standard report covers, if available. Include a concise, descriptive title on the cover Include a title fly only if you want an extra-formal touch. On the title page, list(1)report title ; (2)name, title, and
address of the person who authorized the report ;(3)name, title and address of the person who prepared the report; (4) date of submission.
Include a copy of the letter of authorization. Provide a table of contents in outline form, with headings
worded as they appear in the report. Include list of illustrations Include a synopsis
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 34
Business Communication Text of the report Draft an introduction to prepare the reader for the content
that follows. Provide recommendations, proposals in the body of the
report. Dont clutter the body with unnecessary detail. Close with a summary of your main idea.
Supplementary parts Use appendixes Bibliography, if necessary
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 35
End of Module 6Thank you
04/01/15 IAME, Bangalore 36