Business communication module 6

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  • Business Communication

    Welcome to Module 6

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  • Business Communication

    Documents and Reports Preparation of Business Documents Storage and Retrieval of information Formal Reports Research reports Project reports Business reports and Academic reports Presentation of Bibliography

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    Voice mail Records messages on a disk for later retrieval by the receiver. Eliminates telephone tag.

    Groupware Allows several people at the same time to create documents, keep track of projects, route messages and manage deadlines. Allows teams to work interactively from their individual locations.

    CD ROM database Massive storage ability. Offer multimedia applications, encyclopedia etc.


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    Storage and Retrieval of information

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    Challenges to the Organization made by new technologiesEmailsUnderstanding the InternetEstablishing security

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    Storage and Retrieval of information

  • Business CommunicationDocuments and Reports

    Informational reports offer data, facts, feedback, without analysis or recommendations

    Analytical reports offer information and analysis. Can include recommendation.

    Proposals offer structured persuasion for internal or external audiences

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    Identify your purpose Analyze your audience Choose your ideas Collect your data Organize your messages

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    Preparation of Business Documents

    Plan, Write, Complete

  • Business CommunicationThree-step Process to Informational and Analytical

    Reports Analyze the situation Define your purpose before you start writing( details next


    Identify in advance, all the goals that you need to accomplish

    Prepare a work plan Gather Information Determine whether you need to another research

    project to collect necessary information Re use existing material

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    To update clients on the progress of the research project( progress report)

    To develop goals and objectives( Strategic plan)

    To identify customers and explain how the company will serve them (marketing plan)

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    Statement of purpose

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    WriteAdapt to your audience. Build a strong relationship with your audience by establishing your credibility and projecting your companys image. Control your style with a tone and voice appropriate to the situation

    CompleteRevise the message. Edit and rewrite for clarity and

    conciseness. Use suitable layout, professional appearance, combine text and graphics

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    Introduction Purpose or aim, sources, background, limits, brief

    mention of results Body Present all facts accurately and impartially. Organize the report by inductive plan or deductive plan Emphasize important ideas Include visual aids like graphs, pictures so as to clarify

    information.. continued

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    Short Reports

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    Use headings to guide reader through the report. In short reports use two or three levels of heading

    Use topic sentences for most paragraphs, use an introductory paragraph that contains two or more divisions

    Apply 7 Cs of writing principles.

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    Short Reports

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    Terminal Section

    Consists of summary, recommendations Condense the text, evaluate conclusions, infer from

    the text and offer recommendation Do not include any new material Usually list summary points in the same order as

    topics discussed.

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    Short Reports

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    Outlining the Major Sections

    Decide the headings and subheadings While organizing the outline, determine the types of

    heading, the degrees of headings, parallelism in the headings.

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    Short Reports

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    Outlining the Major Sections

    Regardless of the format you choose, the items in a list should be parallel. For example, if one list begins with a verb, all list should begin with a verb. If one item is a noun phrase, all should be noun phrase.

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    Short Reports

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    Non Parallel Item Parallel Items

    Identification of new foreign markets for our products

    Identifying new foreign markets for our products

    Issues regarding pricing Resolving pricing issues

    Global Market strategies Developing our global market strategies

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    Parallel forms are easier to read and skim. You can create parallelism by repeating the patterns in words, phrases or entire sentences

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    Short Reports

    Method Example

    Parallel words The letter was approved by Brad, Matt, Claudia.

    Parallel phrases We are gaining market share in supermarkets, in departmental stores, and in specialty stores

    Parallel sentences In 2008 we exported 30 % of our production. In 2007, we exported 55%.

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    Adding Headings and SubheadingsA heading is a brief title that tells readers about the content of the section that follows. Subheadings are subordinate to headings.

    Organization : Headings show the reader at a glance how the document is organized. They act as labels to group related paragraphs together.

    Attention : Headings grab the attention making the text easier to read.

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    Short Reports

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    Connection : Using headings and subheadings together help readers see the relationship between main ideas and subordinates. Also indicates shift from one idea to the next.

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    Short Reports

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    Process to Informational and Analytical Reports

    Gather information

    Select the right medium Consider the need for commenting, revising , distributing,

    and storing. Deliver reports in electronic format.

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    Process to Informational and Analytical Reports

    Organize your information Use a direct approach if your audience is

    receptive An indirect approach if audience is skeptical An indirect approach if you dont want to risk

    coming across as arrogant

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    Analytical Reports

    Analytical reports are used to assess opportunities, to solve problems, and to support decisions.

    Reports to assess opportunities - Market analysis report are used to judge the likelihood of success for new products or sales initiatives by suggesting potential opportunities and identifying competitive threats and other risks.

    Reports to solve problems Troubleshooting reports when there is need to understand why something isnt working properly.

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    Analytical Reports

    Reports to support decisions Feasibility reports

    Clarifying the problem in an analytical report by determining what you need to analyze, why the issue is important , who is involved, where the trouble is located, and how and when it started.

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    Reports to monitor and control operations Operating reports provide feedback on a wide variety of an

    organizations functions, including sales, inventories, shipments.

    Personal activity reports provide information regarding an individuals experience during sales calls, market research trips.

    Reports to implement policies and procedures Policy reports to share new procedure to colleagues Handbook, policy manual

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    Informational Reports

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    Reports to demonstrate compliance Quarterly and annual tax reports. Compliance with government regulations for particular

    industries using hazardous materials etc.

    Reports to document progress Supervisors, investors, and customers frequently expect to

    be informed of the progress of projects. Include comparisons of budgeted versus actual expenses, and list of ongoing concerns and risks.

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    Informational Reports

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    Transmittal letters are often used to accompany drafts or contracts that are being sent for review or approval. They also accompany contracts with signatures.

    Generally speaking, a transmittal letter accompanies a document and explains what the document is, why it should receive the reader's consideration, and what the reader should do with it.

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    Transmittal letter

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    Letters of transmittal provide the opportunity to remind a reader of a report title and to highlight points of interest.

    The letter may also contain sensitive or confidential information that is related to, but not a part of, the report.

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    Transmittal letter

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    Formal reports/ Long reports - More detailed, more complex.

    Recognize clearly issues, problems, purpose Realize who your audience or readers will be. Get an idea of sources to which you may turn. Understand the time frame for report completion. Be sure of financial and time constraints: costs, travel. Ask if the authorizer wants a progress report.

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    Formal Reports

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    Cover and external title Title fly and Internal title After title fly is the internal title page with :1. Title as stated on the exterior cover2. Recipient of the report3. The Preparer4. The date Letter or Memorandum of Transmittal

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    Formal Reports

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    Transmittal 1. Authorization Include the name of the group or individual

    who requested the report. Include the date.2. Transmittal details Language has to conversational.

    Polite. Formal language.3. Background, Methodology Give details of research

    methods that you employed.4. Highlights Consider whether your reader is favorably

    disposed to your recommendation. Use judgment. 5. Courteous ending Acknowledge those who assisted.

    Suggest a willingness to respond to further questions.6. Contact information Personal or email id.

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    Formal Reports

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    Table of contents Table of tables Include illustrations, statistical data,

    clarifying end notes, visuals, bibliographic citations. Visuals or Figures - To see more micro and detailed

    graphics to supplement the text. Executive Summary Well organized. Often the most


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    Formal Reports

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    A list at the end of your assignment that includes works for background or further reading as well as those you have referred to in the text.

    The terms citing (or citation) and referencing mean the same thing, and are often used interchangeably. Citing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardised method of acknowledging that source. The full details of the source must be given.

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    Bibliographies are often not a part of business reports.

    It is included at the end of the document.

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    Footnotes and Endnotes

    Gives credit to the source you used. Helps in improving your credibility. Also helps in convincing your readers that your data are trustworthy.

  • Business CommunicationImportant Points

    Write the first draft. Introduction not more than 1 or 2 page. Body or text Create chapters with each chapter having its

    own division. Conclusion, Summary Terminal section. Write draft,

    memo of transmittal. Set table of contents(rough draft). Edit and revise for clarity. Typing the final draft Be consistent. Overall appearance Spacing, margins, pagination.

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  • Business Communication Prefatory parts Use your companys standard report covers, if available. Include a concise, descriptive title on the cover Include a title fly only if you want an extra-formal touch. On the title page, list(1)report title ; (2)name, title, and

    address of the person who authorized the report ;(3)name, title and address of the person who prepared the report; (4) date of submission.

    Include a copy of the letter of authorization. Provide a table of contents in outline form, with headings

    worded as they appear in the report. Include list of illustrations Include a synopsis

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  • Business Communication Text of the report Draft an introduction to prepare the reader for the content

    that follows. Provide recommendations, proposals in the body of the

    report. Dont clutter the body with unnecessary detail. Close with a summary of your main idea.

    Supplementary parts Use appendixes Bibliography, if necessary

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  • Business Communication

    End of Module 6Thank you

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