Cell Respiration & Photosynthesis

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  • 1. Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis

2. Background Information Producers: are able Photosynthesisto convert the sunsrequires a special setenergy into glucose of pigments calledthrough a process chlorophylls to trapcalled photosynthesis the sunlight in order Include plants, someto make glucose fromprotists and bacteria the water and CO2 AKA autotrophsfrom the atmosphere 3. Background Information (cont.) Consumers: eat Consumers are AKAproducers or other heterotrophsconsumers in order to Fungus, bacteria andget the stored glucose some protists are partto use for their own of a specialized groupneedsof consumers AKA Includes animals,decomposers (AKAsome protists &saprophytes) that eatbacteria dead organic material 4. Food Chain Vocabulary 5. Food Webs Food webs are simplyoverlapping foodchains Food webs arecomplex diagramsshowing therelationships betweenmany differentorganisms 6. Energy pp. 138-139 Potential energy is Kinetic energy isstored energy thatenergy of motion,could be used for work being donework Kinetic energy that The chemical energy does not get workstored between thedone is called thermalbonds of atoms is a energy (heat)type of PE. When bonds are All bonds broken, some of the(ATP, sugar, protein, l energy is released asipid) store energyheat 7. Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP) p. 143 8. ATP ATP is broken down ATP can be madeto release the energyfrom spare phosphatebetween the high groups and ADPenergy bonds of thephosphate groups ADP + Pi ATP ATP ADP + Pi This process is called cellular respiration ATP is required forand occurs in thecells to do their work mitochondrion ofand is made from eukaryotic cellsfood 9. ATP Review ATP is the energy The reason for this iscurrency of your cells that ATP is a very All foods entering the small moleculebody convert the This allows a largechemical energyamount of energy tostored between their be used quickly andbonds into the higheasily in the cellenergy bonds ATPs small size alsobetween theallows it to travelphosphate groups ofquickly throughoutATPthe cell 10. Cellular Respiration Results in ATPproduction Occurs in themitochondrion The mitochondrionhas an innermembrane AKA thecristae (the folds) The center of themitochondrion iscalled the matrix 11. Cellular Respiration Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Requires oxygen Does not requirewhich acts as the oxygenfinal electron Does not require aacceptor in the etsmitochondrion Requires a Results in 2 ATP permitochondrion glucose molecule Results in 38 ATP per Prokaryotes (andglucose moleculeeukaryotes in certain Eukaryotessituations) 12. 1st Phase: Glycolysis The 1st stage of Transition step torespirationKrebs cycle: the two Occurs in the3 Carbon pyruvatescytoplasmare converted into two 2 Carbon acetyl- Converts a 6 CarboncoA moleculesglucose into two 3 Electrons areCarbon pyruvates generated and Net gain of 2 ATPtransferred to 2 more Electron carriers also NADH carriersgenerated for later Carbon dioxide isuse (2 NADH) released 13. Glycolysis 14. Glycolysis Animation: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_glycolysis_works.html 15. 2nd Phase: Krebs Cycle Occurs in the matrix Each time, electronsof the mitochondrion are generated and The 2 C acetyl-CoA transferred toenters the cycle and electron carriers (6joins with a 4 C NADH and 2 FADH2)compound These electrons are Many different needed for the etscompounds arewhere most of theformed and brokenATP of respiration willdown in the Krebs be madecycle (AKA citric acid 2 ATP are madecycle) 16. Krebs Cycle 17. Krebs Cycle Animation: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.html 18. Final Phase: Electron Transport Chain (ets or etc) Where the bulk of ATP is made in aerobicrespiration Electrons are passed from one protein tothe next in the inner membrane (AKAcristae) electron transport chain As they do, energy is released and used topump H+ ions into intermembrane space 19. Electron Transport Chain H+ ions are allowed to flow back into thematrix through the protein channel of theATP synthase enzyme The energy of the falling H+ ions is usedby the enzyme to make ATP Oxygen is AKA the final electron acceptorof the electron transport chain. Withoutit, the process stops and no more ATP canbe made 20. Electron Transport Chain 32-34 ATP can be generated per glucosemolecule through this method The electron carriers that have left theirelectrons at the electron transport chaincan now return to any of the previoussteps to get more electrons to bring backto the etc 21. Electron Transport Chain 22. Hydroelectric Power Analogy 23. Cellular Respiration Summary Glycolysis yields ATP and NADH, H20released Transition step yields NADH, CO2released Krebs cycle yields ATP, NADH & FADH2,CO2 released ETS creates ATP, H20 is formed ETS requires the presence of O2 as thefinal electron acceptor 24. Anaerobic Respiration AKA Fermentation Is simply glycolysis Creates byproducts: Occurs in cytoplasm (noalcohol in yeast ormitochondrion required) lactic acid in musclecells Prokaryotic organisms These byproductsuse this processact as the final Eukaryotes may useelectron acceptor ofthis process whenelectrons from theneeded (not enoughNADH molecules (inoxygen)aerobic respiration,the FEA is oxygen) 25. Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis 26. PhotosynthesisGeneral Equation forphotosynthesis: CO2 + H20-chlorophyll Glucose + O2 Notice that theproducts ofphotosynthesis arethe reactants ofaerobic respiration 27. Chloroplast Thylakoids are theindividualchlorophyllcontainingstructures A granum is astack of thylakoids The stroma is thefluid surroundingthe thylakoids 28. Leaf Cross Section 29. Photosynthesis 30. Photosynthesis Light Reactions Dark Reactions Take place across the AKA the Calvin cyclemembrane of the This process ofthylakoidcarbon fixing takes Two photosystems place in the stroma of(PS I & II) capturethe choloroplastsunlight to create ATP 1 turn of the Calvinin ets and put cycle produces 1 G3Pelectrons in electron 2 G3P = 1 glucosecarriers called NADPHmolecule 31. Light Reactions Chlorophyll in PS I and Both the ATP andII traps sunlight NADPH enter the The sunlight excitesstroma to completeelectrons which are the Calvin cycletransferred to NADPH Water splits to releaseelectron carriers and electrons to replenishtaken to the etsthe supply at PS II The ETS generates ATP The electrons used innecessary in the Calvin the ets go to PS I tocycle to make G3P (2replenish the electronG3P = glucose)supply there 32. Dark Reactions At the end of the dark We say that in thisreactions, a moleculephase carbon is fixedknown as G3P is This means it is takenmade from a gas state 2 G3P joined together(carbon dioxide) andforms a glucoseconverted into a solidmolecule state (glucose) which can be used by our bodies 33. Photosynthesis Summary In the light In the dark reactionsreactions, electrons (Calvin cycle), ATPfrom PS II are used in and NADPH are usedan etc to make ATP to take CO2 and makeneeded for the darkG3Preactions. 2 G3P = 1 glucose Electron carriers Water and CO2 arecalled NADPH are used and O2 isfilled at PS I to be released during theused in the dark process ofreactionsphotosynthesis 34. The Carbon Cycle Carbon is cycledthroughout theenvironment in partthrough the processesof photosynthesis andcellular respiration Carbon is stored inorganicmaterial, rocks(limestone), and inthe atmosphere 35. The Carbon Cycle