cellular respiration

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cellular respiration

Text of cellular respiration

  • 1.Cellular Respiration
      • When we eat, we get energy (glucose and other sugars)
    • Food energy is broken down into usable energy
      • Energy used to bond phosphategroups to ADP to make ATP

2. Cellular Respiration

  • What is cell respiration???
    • Respiration:the process of breaking down food molecules into usable energy
    • THE GOAL:
      • Create ATP for cells to use
      • Free up electronshave high energy

3. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 Cellular Respiration 4. Cellular Respiration 5. Cellular Respiration

  • Types of cell respiration
    • Aerobic Processes:
      • REQUIREoxygen to take place
      • A lot of energy available (efficient)
    • Anaerobic Processes:
      • DO NOTrequire oxygen to take place
      • Get energy quickly (inefficient)

6. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 7. Glycolysis

  • Involves breaking down 6-carbon sugars
    • Break sugars into pyruvic acid molecules
      • 3-Carbon molecules
  • This process isANAEROBIC
    • No oxygen necessary
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells

8. Glycolysis

  • You will need to know this

9. Glycolysis

  • Just Kidding

10. Glycolysis

  • Glycolysis also creates hydrogen ions and free electrons
      • The whole point of respiration = high energy
  • H+ions bond with NAD +to formNADH + H+
      • NADH carries electrons and H+ions
  • This process uses2ATPmolecules and creates4 ATPmolecules

11. 12. Glycolysis

  • TOTAL ATP PRODUCTION:
    • GlycolysisStep 1uses 2 ATP molecules
    • GlycolysisStep 2converts 4 ADP molecules into 4 ATP molecules
    • Net ATP production = 2 ATP for everyglucose molecule

13. Glycolysis 14. Glycolysis

  • Oxygen is our friend
    • When oxygen is present,aerobic respirationoccurs
      • Happens in the mitochondria

15. Glycolysis

  • Breaking down Pyruvic Acid
    • Occurs in the mitochondria
    • Pyruvic Acid = 3-carbon compound
    • Broken down into
      • 2-Carbon compoundacetic acid
      • Carbon Dioxide

16. Glycolysis

  • Intermediate Step in Glycolysis
    • 2-Carbon CompoundAcetic Acid
      • Combined with coenzyme A (CoA)
      • Forms compound called acetyl-CoA
    • This is only an intermediate stephave to move pyruvic acid into Krebs Cycle

17. Glycolysis Glycolysis = 2 ATP 18. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 19. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

  • Produces more ATP and releases more electrons
    • Electrons picked up by NAD+and FAD
      • Organic carrier molecules
  • Occurs inside mitochondria
    • Mitochondrial Matrix

20. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

  • Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule
      • Citric Acid
  • Citric Acid broken down into a 5-carbon compound
      • NAD+removes electrons (NADH + H+ )
      • CO 2released

21. 22. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

  • 5-carbon compound broken down into a 4-carbon compound
      • ATP created
      • NAD+removes electrons (NADH + H+ )
      • CO 2released
  • 4-carbon compound (oxaloacetic acid) is created
      • Used to bond with acetyl- CoA to restart cycle

23. 24. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle 25. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP 26. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 27. Electron Transport Chain

  • What is the ETC???
    • A series of molecules along which electrons are transferred, releasing energy
    • Occurs in the mitochondria wall of mitochondria
    • Aerobic process
      • Oxygen is involved
        • Acts as the electron acceptor

28. Electron Transport Chain

  • As the electrons are passed between carrier proteins, energy is released
    • ATP is created
  • Electrons are given up by the carrier molecules
    • NADH and FADH 2------- NAD+and FAD

29. Electron Transport Chain 30. Electron Transport Chain

  • As the electrons (H+ions) travel down the chain, they bond with oxygen
      • 2 H++ 1 O = water (H 2 O)
      • Electron acceptor
  • Carbon is given off as carbon dioxide

31. Electron Transport Chain 32. Glycolysis ETC = 34 ATP 33. Electron Transport Chain

  • A problem exists if there is no oxygen
      • Anaerobic process
    • When oxygen is used up, electrons cannot be removed
      • Traffic jam in the mitochondria
  • KEY POINTElectron Transport Chaincannot run without oxygen

34. Anaerobic Respiration

  • If no oxygen present after glycolysis, pyruvic acid can still be broken down
    • Fermentation
  • 2 ATP made during fermentation
  • Uses electrons carried by NADH + H + so that NAD +can regenerate for glycolysis

35. Anaerobic Respiration

  • Two types of fermentation
  • Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • Alcoholic Fermentation

Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Lactic Acid Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Ethanol + 2 CO 2 36. Anaerobic Respiration

  • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • NADH produce during glycolysis transfers H atoms to pyruvate reducing it to lactate.
    • Muscle fatigue
      • When your muscle cells require more energy than can be produced
      • Lack of oxygen
      • Lactic acid build up = muscle fatigue
      • When oxygen is present, lactic acid breaks down

37. Anaerobic Respiration 38. Anaerobic Respiration

  • Alcohol Fermentation
    • Occurs in bacteria, plants and most animals
    • Can you think of a bacteria that is used for fermentation???
    • Pyruvic Acid is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide

39.

  • Dacrboxylate pyruvate , releasing CO2 and forming 2-C compound called acetaldehyde.
  • NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to acetaldehyde, reducing it to ethyl alcohol.
  • Basis for the production of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages.

40. Anaerobic Respiration 41. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 42. Cellular Respiration

  • General Formula

C 6 H 12 O 6+ 6 O 2 6 CO 2+ 6 H 2 O