EDU 221, fa2014, Chapter 18, cdb, CCC, challenging behaviors, special needs, observations
- 1. Managing Challenging Behaviors Chapter 18 in The Exceptional Child: Inclusion in Early Childhood Education by Allen, K. Eileen and Cowdery , Glynnis E. (2015). Pearson.
2. Connections This chapter should remind you of EDU 146 The teaching pyramid model is emphasized in this chapter Many of our local schools have implemented Positive Behavior Strategies (PBS) in an effort to teach and encourage appropriate and acceptable behaviors consistently throughout each school. 3. NAEYC Connections Standard 1: Promoting Child Development and Learning Standard 2: Building Family and Community Relationships Standard 3: Observing, Documenting, and Assessing to Support Young Children and Families Standard 4: Using Developmentally Effective Approaches to Connect with Children and Families (2011, NAEYC) 4. Clarification Challenging or problem behaviors are behaviors that negatively impact a childs opportunities to learn or develop relationships; they may be destructive, dangerous, or otherwise beyond social norms Challenging behaviors are not (unless they become a pattern): Behaviors that are annoying Behaviors that are age or developmentally typical; however, we cannot allow hurtful and harmful behaviors and must work to eliminate age typical behaviors that fall in those categories; examples: biting for an 18 month old or hitting for a frustrated 3 - 4 year old. Behaviors that are the result of temporary influences such as hungry, tired, or ill children. 5. Multiple Influences Remember NAEYC Key Element 1b Knowing and understanding the multiple influences on development and learning? Cultural expectations Parental expectations Reactions to behaviors Environments Individual characteristics of a childs temperament Goodness-of-fit (see the excellent example on p. 475 of your text) 6. Excuses, Excuses STOP! DO NOT: Make excuses for inappropriate behaviors. This can be especially damaging to children with developmental delays. Lower behavioral expectations for children with developmental delays. All children can learn acceptable behaviors Expect children to never have challenging behaviors. All children have challenging behaviors at some time. It only becomes a major problem if it is allowed to become the norm. Blame the behaviors on failure to take medicine, eating too much sugar, etc. That takes the blame off the child and provides no reason to control ones behavior. 7. So. . . Do you know typical social and emotional development for young children and can you identify potential deviations from typical behaviors? Are you one to respond appropriately to occasional misbehaviors? Can you determine if your environment is a goodness of fit for a child? Have you considered family and cultural expectations and do you have the ability to reconcile differences in expectations? Do you have the skills to determine if certain behaviors are interfering with a childs day to day learning and interactions? Do you know how to evaluate your classroom using the Teaching Pyramid for Social Emotional Development? 8. Teaching Pyramid The text explains the Teaching Pyramid model very nicely, but both the CSEFEL and TACSEI websites provide many additional resources and further information. This is an excellent model to use for all children, including those with challenging behaviors and those with developmental delays. Pyramid Model Overview The suggestions on p. 476 in your text are excellent resources as you work on your environment Key Assessment. Compare Tier 1 building positive relationships to NAEYC Key Element 4a: Understanding positive relationships and supportive interactions as the foundation of their work with children 9. What Does It Mean? Develop those relationships Children to children Children to adults and vice versa Adults to adults Have preventive measures in place Supportive environment Clear and consistent expectations Interesting and challenging materials, equipment, and activities 80 85% of your children will be fine and have few behavior issues with the first 2 tiers in place. What about the rest? 10. What About the Other 15 20%? The 3rd tier takes care of about 15% of the remaining children those who need additional social and emotional teaching support. May be direct and/or indirect Children need opportunities to practice skills being taught The children with developmental delays and specific problems with social and emotional development the final 5% - may need support through intensive individualized interventions Observation, assessments, and planning with a team is necessary Parents are part of the team and need to help ensure consistency of plans across environments Consistency from everyone is key Regular reflection, follow-up, and on-going support are all vital 11. Remember! Prevention is key! Reframe your thinking Instead of expecting kids to behave before they get to do the fun activities, have the inviting environment and the strong relationships that keeps them engaged and wanting to do the right thing! Before you blame the children, be willing to carefully observe and assess the situation, and reflect on your own practices to see what may be triggers or maintaining consequences that make misbehaving more attractive than behaving. 12. Positive Behavior Plans 1. Work together with the interdisciplinary team and parents to 2. Identify the challenging behavior 3. Identify the circumstances of when the behavior occurs through systematic observations 1. Where? 2. How often? 3. With whom? 4. Can the antecedents (triggers) and the maintaining consequences be identified? (More observation information later) 4. Work with team members to 1. Design interventions 2. Ensure everyone can implement the interventions across settings 13. ABCs of Behaviors Through observations, teachers or others can identify the specific behaviors, the triggers, maintaining consequences, and the purpose (function) of the behavior A = Antecedent or the trigger. What happens right before the behavior occurs? Example: you have called the children in from the playground and Johnny always pitches a fit when it is time to come in from the playground. B = Behavior. What is the behavior in objective terms? Pitches a fit can mean several different things to different people. Does he run the opposite direction yelling that he is not going in? Does he start crying? Does he immediately say No, and you cant make me!? Does he begin to whine and say he isnt through playing? Does he do all of the above on different days? 14. ABCs of Behavior (cont.) C = consequences; here we are talking about maintaining consequences What happens after the behavior that keeps that behavior occurring? Continuing with our example Does Johnny get a few more minutes outside? Does he get attention when the teacher starts fussing at him? Does he get attention when the other kids start fussing at him? Does he get out of doing the next thing because he gets put in time out? That brings us to function; again, what does Johnny get out of this behavior? The function of most all behaviors can be categorized as A-P-E 15. The Function of Behaviors APE That brings us to function; again, what does Johnny get out of this behavior? The function of most all behaviors can be categorized as A-P-E A = Attention the teacher yelling at Johnny P = Pleasure gets a few more minutes outside E = Escape gets put in timeout so he doesnt have to participate in the next activity Another way to categorize behaviors is P-A-I-R P = Power a bully or perhaps the pleasure of dominating A = Attention I = Inadequacy; this is generally the child who is trying to escape; she doesnt want to do a task because she doesnt like it or understand how to do it R = Revenge Keep in mind! These kids are not doing this intentionally. They are not plotting to make your life miserable! 16. This Takes Time and Effort! These observations and assessments take time Only after careful analysis of the information do you and the team identify a replacement behavior and begin to plan the intervention Time to implement the plan Needs to be implemented consistently Need to be implemented across people and environments **** Be prepared to stick it out! Behavior is challenging to change! **** Expect the child to exhibit more of the problem behavior for up to 2 weeks or more. **** Change will happen if adults will stick to the plan, but it take effort! Dont Quit! 17. Cultural Barriers Adults who believe they tried. They made an effort to follow the recommendations of the experts, but it did not work! Problem was, they did not follow through with the difficult part. Failure to follow through for everyone. Perhaps the parents or an assistant or the teacher or the substitute or the grandparents or anyone else could not deal with seeing the poor little person so unhappy and not get his/her way. They have a hard time believing that the intervention is an effort to help the child in the long run. People who believe that punishment is more effective than prevention. These people may be too busy or are just in the habit of punishing children who should know better instead of understanding that adult guidance, respectful environments, and positive relationships go much further in positive social and emotional development. Or, they may literally want to do better, but have not yet developed their own skills that help this happen. 18. Cultural Barriers (cont.) Adults who truly do not know typical child development. They may be punishing age-typical behaviors rather than teaching developmentally appropriate skills and supervising well enough to redirect or otherwise intercept age-typical behaviors that are problematic. Example: Think of the adult who punishes an exhausted 2 year old who really needs a nap as she is being dragged all over Wal-Mart for several hours. 19. Collecting Data Choose the best type of