Chemistry essentials-for-dummies-wiley-2010

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We’re all natural born chemists. Every time we cook, clean, take a shower, drive a car, use a solvent, such as fingernail polish remover, or perform any of the countless everyday activities that involve complex chemical reactions we’re doing chemistry. You might even say that we’re all participating in a grand chemistry experiment that started with the first human who mixed pigments to do a cave painting. Why do so many of us desperately resist learning chemistry when we’re young? Maybe it has something to do with the way it’s taught in school. Now there’s a fun, easy way to learn basic chemistry. Whether you’re studying chemistry in school and you’re looking for a little help making sense of what’s being taught in class, or you’re just into learning new things for their own sake, Chemistry For Dummies gets you rolling with all the basics of matter and energy, atoms and molecules, acids and bases, and much more. In no time you’ll: Understand atomic structure and function Use the Periodic Table of elements Know what happens when matter changes from one state to another Explore ionic and covalent bonding Get a handle on chemical reactions Perform simple chemistry calculations Understand acids, bases, pHs, antacids, and gases Make sense Boyle’s Law, Avrogadro’s Law and other key laws in chemistry Packed with examples of chemistry in action in everyday life, Chemistry For Dummies is a fascinating exploration of broad range of topics in chemistry, including: States of matter, from the macroscopic to the microscopic Understanding how the elements are arranged in the Periodic Table Nuclear chemistry, radioactivity and radioactive decay Positive and negative ions and ionic compounds Covalent bonding in covalent compounds Chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and electrochemistry The mole and how it’s used to calculate chemical reactions Great serendipitous discoveries in chemistry Environmental chemistry Written in plain English and requiring only basic math, Chemistry For Dummies puts you on the fast track to mastering the basics of chemistry.

Text of Chemistry essentials-for-dummies-wiley-2010

  • 1. John T. Moore, EdD Regents Professor of Chemistry, Stephen F. Austin State University Exactly what you need to know about matter and energy The basics of chemical bonds How to balance chemical reactions Learn: Chemistry Essentials Making Everything Easier!
  • 2. Chemistry Essentials FOR DUMmIES by John T. Moore, EdD
  • 3. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River St. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appro- priate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748- 6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, Making Everything Easier, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETE- NESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITU- ATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PRO- FESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRIT- TEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. For technical support, please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Control Number: 2010925163 ISBN: 978-0-470-61836-3 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 4. About the Author John T. Moore grew up in the foothills of Western North Carolina. He attended the University of North Carolina-Asheville where he received his bachelors degree in chemistry. He earned his Masters degree in chemistry from Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina. After a stint in the United States Army, he decided to try his hand at teaching. In 1971, he joined the chemistry faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas where he still teaches chemistry. In 1985, he started back to school part time and in 1991 received his Doctorate in Education from Texas A&M University. Johns area of specialty is chemical education, especially at the pre-high school level. For the last several years, he has been the co-editor (along with one of his former students) of the Chemistry for Kids feature of The Journal of Chemical Education. He has authored Chemistry For Dummies and Chemistry Made Simple, and hes co-authored 5 Steps To A Five: AP Chemistry, Chemistry for the Utterly Confused, and Biochemistry For Dummies. John lives in Nacogdoches, Texas with his wife Robin and theirtwo dogs. He enjoys brewing his own beer and mead and creating custom knife handles from exotic woods. And he loves to cook. His two boys, Jason and Matt, remain in the mountains of North Carolina along with his twin grandbabies, Sadie and Zane.
  • 5. Publishers Acknowledgments Were proud of this book; please send us your comments through our Dummies online registration form located at http://dummies.custhelp.com. For other comments, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media Development Senior Project Editor: Tim Gallan Acquisitions Editor: Lindsay Lefevere Senior Copy Editor: Danielle Voirol Technical Reviewer: Medhane Cumbay, Patti Smykal Editorial Program Coordinator: JoeNiesen Editorial Manager: Michelle Hacker Editorial Assistants: Jennette ElNaggar, David Lutton, Rachelle Amick Cover Photo: iStock/bratan007 Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com) Composition Services Project Coordinator: Patrick Redmond Layout and Graphics: Carrie A. Cesavice, Joyce Haughey Proofreaders: Rebecca Denoncour, Sossity R. Smith Indexer: Potomac Indexing, LLC Publishing and Editorial for Consumer Dummies Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher, Consumer Dummies Kristin Ferguson-Wagstaffe, Product Development Director, Consumer Dummies Ensley Eikenburg, Associate Publisher, Travel Kelly Regan, Editorial Director, Travel Publishing for Technology Dummies Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher, Dummies Technology/General User Composition Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services
  • 6. Contents at a Glance Introduction ...............................................................................................1 Chapter 1: Matter and Energy: Exploring the Stuff of Chemistry ....... 5 Chapter 2: Whats In an Atom? .............................................................. 17 Chapter 3: The Periodic Table............................................................... 35 Chapter 4: Nuclear Chemistry ............................................................... 43 Chapter 5: Ionic Bonding........................................................................ 55 Chapter 6: Covalent Bonding................................................................. 69 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions.............................................................. 87 Chapter 8: Electrochemistry: Using Electrons .................................. 111 Chapter 9: Measuring Substances with the Mole.............................. 125 Chapter 10: A Salute to Solutions........................................................ 135 Chapter 11: Acids and Bases................................................................ 145 Chapter 12: Clearing the Air on Gases................................................ 159 Chapter 13: Ten Serendipitous Discoveries in Chemistry ............... 171 Index........................................................................................................ 175
  • 7. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 About This Book ........................................................................ 1 Conventions Used in This Book............................................... 2 Foolish Assumptions ................................................................. 2 Icons Used in This Book............................................................ 3 Where to Go from Here ............................................................. 3 Chapter 1: Matter and Energy: Exploring the Stuff of Chemistry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Knowing the States of Matter and Their Changes ................. 6 Solids, liquids, and gases................................................ 6 Solids .......................................................................6 Liquids .................................................................... 7 Gases .......................................................................7 Condensing and freezing ......