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  • 1. CODES AND CONVENTIONS OFMUSIC VIDEOSBY ABI SHAW

2. What are codes andconventions? The codes and conventions of music videosare the different techniques used to constructmeaning in them. These techniques can be divided into twotypes; technical and symbolic. 3. Technical Techniques Technical how meaning is conveyed usingtechnical equipment e.g the way the waycamera angles are used, different types ofshots, sound either diegetic and non-diegeticsound, the pace and style of editing, and thegenre. 4. Symbolic Techniques Symbolic techniques are ways of showingmeanings beyond what you can see forexample through, facial expressions,gestures, poses and mis en scene. 5. Reasons for codes andconventions. The audience can become familiar with a particular genre, as they get use to recognizing the different conventions within a genre. It provides a structure that the audience can understand. To ensure the lyrics of the song fit in with the video, of how wed expect it to be. 6. The codes and conventions The conventions of a music video varydepending on genre of music. However, thegeneral conventions include; The Style The Camera The Editing Techniques The Sound (non diegetic and diegetic) Mis en Scene props, lighting, costume hair and makeup, location/setting, andcolours. Notions of looking - stereotyping 7. The Style of music videos 8. Performance Performance Performance is when the music video consists mainly of theartists performing in the video. A good example of this is Beyonce Love onTop were the video shows the artist continuously performing the song andthere is no narrative or any other scenes in the video. This style of music videoisnt as common, as music videos that are solely dedicated to performanceare not that popular, because target audiences would not be able to engagewith the song or video, however this example is used costume and lighting todisplay the performance in a creative way making it more interesting towatch. 9. Narrative A Narrative music video follows a story line, there are two types of narrative Linear and Fragmented A linear narrative starts a story at the beginning, goes on through the middle, and ends at the end. A fragmented narrative is one that doesnt. An example of a linear narrative is Katy Perry Thinking of you as it plays a story from the beginning to the end. 10. Mixture Mixture which is a combination of performance and narrative this is usually found in music videos as it is hard to have a pure performance or narrative, by using both performance and narrative the video can be made more interesting and enjoyable to watch for example In Kelly Clarksons video Since you been gone. 11. Cameo Cameo is were a band or artist features in the narrativebut does not perform . A good example of this is Drakeand Rihanna Whats my name were both artists in thiscase play apart in the narrative but do not perform. 12. The Camera The way the camera is used is crucial inproducing a music video. It can have andcreate different effects by the differentAngles, and Movements. In general everymusic video uses a variety of cameraShots, Angles and Movements to createdifferent techniques and to make the videodifferent and unique in its own way, to othermusic videos. 13. Camera Shots Music videos feature a number of shots for various reasons, to relate with theaudience by expressing thoughts and feelings, but also to show the viewer what ishappening. Certain shots that you would normally find in a music video include;Very Wide shot This is were the artistis shown visible (barley) but theemphasis is still on placing the artist inthe location/setting. Wide shot This is were the artist is shown taking up most of the shot but the location/setting is still focused on. Mid shot this shows the artist from his/her waist to head, and focuses mainly on the subject but still giving an impression of the location/setting. 14. Medium close up- this shot is halfway between a mid shot and a closeup, showing the artist from chest tohead. Close up this shot shows the artists face or can show an object that the artist is holding, or something were the camera focuses closely on.Extreme close-up this shows the artists faceextremely close , for example eyes, or mouth toidentify something it can have the effect of showingthe audience the artists thoughts and feelings oreven showing a lip sync commonly used in musicvideos. 15. Over the shoulder shot this is a good shotused , specifically in narrative based musicvideos usually when the artist is acting andspeaking to another person you tend to see anover the shoulder shot to display theconversation , or to show something thecharacter is looking at. Cut in this shot can be used in music videos to show something that the lyrics might be saying for example I will shoot you with my gun and a gun comes in It shows the object in detail, similar to a n extreme close up, but used very quickly, or and object that relates to the subject or narrative. These shots are the basic shots you expect to see in most music videos, however there can be some more creative ways of displaying a scene through different camera angles 16. Camera AnglesThe way the camera is positioned determines the angle of the shot. There are manydifferent camera angles used in the production of music videos to convey different images.Examples of camera angles are;Eye-Level this is a very common view beingthe real world angle that we are all use toseeing, it shows subjects as we would expect tosee them in real life.High Angle This is were the camera shows thesubject from above, and the camera is angled downtowards the subject, which has the effect of makingthem appear less powerful, less significant and oreven submissive.Low Angle This is were the subject is shown frombelow, giving the impression of being morepowerful o r dominant. 17. Birds Eye this angle is showing the subject/ scenefrom directly above, and its is completely different andcan be from an unnatural point of view which can beused to add a dramatic effect or showing a differentspatial perspective. It can also show the positions andmotions of different characters and objects, enablingthe viewer to see things the character might not see. Slanted this is when the camera is slanted also known as a Dutch angle were the camera is purposely tilted to one side so the horizon is on an angle, this is creative in making interesting dramatic effects. Dutch tilts are also popular in MTV-style video production, where unusual angles and lots of camera movement play a big part. Camera angles play a huge part in emphasising the artist or to show emotions and expressions. Other camera angles that are simply the most common in music videos , are close ups, showing the artist lip syncing, and extreme close ups were lyrics can be linked to visuals.The camera never stays on one shot for longer than 3-5 seconds. 18. Camera Movements The camera moves to follow the artist or toshow the performance of the artist. Thesemovements include panning and tracking. Adirector may choose to move action along bytelling the story as a series of cuts, goingfrom one shot to another, or they may decideto move the camera with the action. Someexamples of camera movements are : Pans This is were the camera scans a scenehorizontally. The camera is placed on atripod, which operates as a stationary axispoint as the camera is turned, often to followa moving object which is kept in the middleof the frame. Dolly/ Tracking- This is were the camera ismounted on a cart which travels along tracksfor a very smooth movement. Also known astracking. 19. EditingTechniquesFinal cut pro is the music videoediting software that we useto edit our music videos. Editing is the process that concludes the making of the music video. When youedit, you cut scenes down, add special effects and add the track to the music videoetc..The editing consists of the following things: -Jump Cutting -CGI effects (theprocess used for generating animated images by using computer graphics). Anexample of this is in the music video, Sweet Dreams- Beyonce . The background hasbeen added on . Additionally, the effects in the second picture have also beengenerated using computer graphics. -Parallel editing- (A method of cutting between acouple of scenes or stories that are happening at the same time.) -Also, adding non-diegetic sound is also part of the editing. 20. Sound Sound consists of two main forms diegetic sound which is already present in the film and non - diegetic sound which can be edited in. Sound is absolutely essential in any music video as this is the main reason for why people watch and listen to them, to gain a sense of art via different artists. Sound, like footage can be edited to create different effects and variations to the normal vocals that we hear.Sound Parallel sound is when the musicmatches the mood of the video. An examplewould be if the song was slow then the videowould also be slow to go with the mood of thesong. Also, if it was a sad song then the videowould also be sad. Some music videos havediegetic sound, where they include sound fromthe surroundings, such as birds, police sirensthat make the video seem more realistic.However, the music itself is non-diegetic sound. 21. Mis en scene =) The Mis en scene for music videos focuses on the lighting,props, costume, hair and makeup, location, and colour theseelements usually depend on the genre of the music video andthe style. These elements are also important in contributingtowards the chosen genre. They are used to convey theimportance of the people in the music videos. They are alsoused to represent certain characters in different ways. Lighting how the scene is lit / artificial lights/ side lights Props performance equipment, band merchandise Costume - certain outfits Hair and makeup style of the artist Location concert halls venues, streets etc Colour - Specific colours repre