Click here to load reader

Conversion of waste material into useful products

Embed Size (px)



Citation preview

  • MAJOR SOURCES OF WASTE MATERIAL 1. Municipal sources of waste: waste from household, different organization, schools, colleges, other institutions, restaurant & other public places eg. remnant food, used plastic bottles, plastic/polythene bags, broken utensils/furniture, old cloths/shoes, food/product packets, used papers etc. 2. Medical sources of waste: waste from different health care institute like hospitals, nursing homes involves items like different expired medicines, operational ingredients, used needles & syringes, used bandage, blood, pharmaceuticals.
  • 3. Waste from Automobiles: includes exhaust contain various poisonous gases due to incomplete combustions of petrol in cars. old not working vehicles are dumped that adds more waste to the environment. 4. Industrial sources of waste: types of fossils fuel for energy which produces poisonous smoke containing hydrocarbon and different Scrap material
  • 5. Construction sources of waste: waste from different construction activities of building roads involves different concrete waste, wood, plastic bags of cements & building materials. 6. Electronic sources of waste: different electrical/electronic waste that involves TV, computers, vacuum cleaners, telephones, AC machines etc.
  • WHAT IS RECYCLING? Recycling is a process in which waste materials are treated in a way that they can be used again. Recycling is a key component of modern waste management and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.
  • NEED FOR RECYCLING It reduces the demand up on new resources. Cuts down the cost and effort of transport and production. Use waste which would otherwise be lost to landfill sites.
  • RECYCLING-STEP 1- COLLECTION and PROCESSING: METHODS: - drop-off centers - buy-back centers -waste collection vehicle Recyclables are then sent to a material recovery facility to be SORTED and PREPARED for MANIFACTURING. Recyclables are bought and sold like any other commodity
  • RECYCLING-STEP 2- MANUFACTURING More and more of todays products are made with total or partial recycled content i.e., newspapers, paper ,towels, soft drink containers, detergent bottles, steel cans,etc. Recyclables are also used in innovative applications such as asphalt, carpeting, benches, pedestrian bridges
  • RECYCLING-STEP 3 MARKETING: Buying/Selling recycled products completes the recycling loop. As consumers demand more environmentally sound products, manufacturers will continue to produce high quality recycled products.
  • FACTS ON RECYCLING WATER Water is a very precious resource and needs to be used carefully Conserve water in your everyday routine There are several countries in the world, where people still do not have clean drinking water Reclaim rainwater Sanitize grey water
  • Problem faced by Israel. They are recycling 75% waste water next to them are spain 12% How to face this problem- Conserving Recycling desalination
  • WATER HARVESTING Conscious collection and storage of rainwater to cater to demands of water, for drinking, domestic purpose & irrigation is termed as Rainwater Harvesting There are two types of rainwater harvesting 1.surface run of harvesting 2.Rooftop rainwater harvesting
  • USES OF RECYCLED WATER agriculture landscape public parks golf course irrigation cooling water for power plants and oil refineries processing water for mills, plants toilet flushing dust control construction activities concrete mixing artificial lakes
  • COMMANLY USED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Concrete Brick Glass Asphalt Paving Land Clearing Residuals Wood Gypsum Wallboard Buildings Metals Roofing(non-asphalt shingles)
  • CONCRETE: o Concrete is one of the most important construction material. o Approximately one ton of concrete is used per capita per year throughout the world. o Recycling of concrete o irreversible process o crushed into thin particles o mixed as aggregate
  • CONCRETE: o Benefits of recycling concrete - Cost of aggregates Disposal costs Environmental damage Less consumption of natural resources Valuable landfill space
  • SOURCES OF WOOD WASTE Construction wastes Doors Cupboards Fence panels & posts Tree branches and green wastes Wooden garden sheds Furnitures
  • LAND CLEARING Removal of woods , bushes & grass For agriculture, urban & other land purposes Trees and bushescan be recycled as compost or mulch
  • PROCESS OF RECYCLING Decontamination: Metals, glass, Papers, Rubbers & Plastic Wood crushing : 1) It reduces the size of wood into small pieces. 2) Oversize pieces are recirculated fine particles are obtained.
  • RECYCLED WOOD PRODUCTS Horse bedding, pet bedding, poultry bedding Panel boards Play areas Composting Energy production Mulch and pathway covering BENEFITS: Reduce cutting of new trees Preserves forests habitats for animals and birds Increase the job in economy
  • BRICK: o Broken & discarded brick can be used as construction infill or as aggregate for non-structural concrete. o Brick that are part of demolish rubble can be crushed and used in the same way. o Brick masonry rubble contains mortar upto 20% by volume. o Crushed brick & roofing tiles are the bulk of demolition waste which were earlier being dumped in landfills, but now they can be recycled into mortar plaster & building blocks.
  • Brick Recycle clean brick by crushing material. Market outlets for recycled brick include aggregate, drainage media, and general fill.
  • Producing bricks from waste combination of vegetable oil- based binders which are mixed with waste aggregates. mixture is shaped into bricks and blocks During the heating process the oil undergoes a number of complex chemical reactions which transforms it from a viscous liquid into a solid binding matrix. Producing the products uses no water, and creates no waste.
  • Roofing(non-asphalt shingles) Reuse sheathing, terracotta, slate, or untreated cedar tiles, Metal materials can also be recycled
  • GLASS: o One ton of recycled waste glass corresponds to savings in energy equivalent to 125lit of fuel oil & 1.2tons of raw materials. o Recycling of glass reduces non-biodegradable glass out of landfills. o Glass can be used as substitute for Quartz & Feldspar in the manufacturing of high strength procelain sanitary ware. o It can also be used to make mineral wool- an insulation product & in granular form as part of the aggregate in concrete mixes. o In USA an experiment was conducted on metal free-glass constituents separated from municipal incinerator residue. This glass was used to produce brick, glass-wool thermal insulation & as a major component of a light weight aggregate used in structural concrete.
  • PLASTIC: o There is an over abundance of waste plastic. o It is very difficult to dispose plastics. o Waste plastics can be shredded & used as filler in other materials such as concrete & also in construction of roads o House hold plastic waste can also be recycled to obtain artificial light weight aggregates for mortar. o Plastics reduces the possibilities of cracking.
  • Thermoplastics Plastic This material is man made and is a by product of the oil industry. There are two types of plastic : Thermosetting
  • These are described as plastics that can be reformed using heat : this plastic has a memory, it returns to its original flat shape when re-heated. Thermoplastics materials thermoplastic resin. Polypropylene ABS. Acrylic , ABS , Styrene Examples :
  • Thermosetting materials These are described as plastics that do not reform using heat, they SET and cannot be reshaped . Melamine , Polyester resin ,Urea formaldehyde Here are some examples :
  • RECYCLED BY Reusing as Bags Pack things with plastic bags Crafting with Plastic Bags Store perishable food in plastic bags Reuse them for their initial purpose Make use of plastic bags for traveling Use plastic bags for household needs
  • Recycled plastic
  • RECYCLING - FACTS AND FIGURES Today USA recycles 28 % of its waste, a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years Recycling of specific materials has grown even more drastically. 42% of PAPER 40% of all PLASTIC soft drink bottle 55% of all ALLUMINIUM beer and soft drink cans 57%of all STEEL packaging 52 % of all major APPLIACES are now RECYCLED
  • RECYCLING IS GROWING Twenty years ago only one curbside recycling program existed in the USA By 1998-9: -9,000 curbside programs, -12,000 recyclables drop-off centers and - 480 material recovery facilities had been established in the USA
  • To Recycle The Choice Is Yours To Landfill