Creating Digital Resources using Instructional Design Principles

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  • Creating Digital Resources using Instructional Design

    Principles CJ Davison

    Nicholas Yates

  • What are some digital resources that you create

    for your classes?

  • Cognitive Overload

  • Audio Visual

    http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51ehLg1SElL._SL1000_.jpg

    Input into our working memory

  • http://talkvietnam.com/uploads/2012/10/danger-on-wheels-648902-overloaded.jpg

    Cognitive Overload

  • Who has experienced cognitive overload in their personal life? Life as teacher? Life as student?

  • Multimedia Learning

  • Mayer (2001)

  • Multimedia Principles (Clark and Mayer, 2011)

  • Multimedia Principle

    http://static.webshopapp.com/shops/022166/files/007608491/two-is-better-than-one.jpg

  • Modality Principle

  • Redundancy Principle

    http://vignette2.wikia.nocookie.net/uncyclopedia/images/d/df/Dord.png/revision/latest?cb=20060508193752

  • http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/audio/video/2013/10/29/1383044174700/A-Pixar-illustration-that-010.jpgCoherence Principle

  • http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/audio/video/2013/10/29/1383044174700/A-Pixar-illustration-that-010.jpg

    Image Principle

  • Multimedia Principle

    http://static.webshopapp.com/shops/022166/files/007608491/two-is-better-than-one.jpg

  • Multimedia Principle Static images encourage:

    Visual representations mental connections

    Use when instructional demonstrations definitions procedures relationships

    Dont use as decoration!

    People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone

    http://www.bohodaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/kiyasa.jpg

  • Multimedia PrincipleExample 1

  • chess (n)

    Flashcards

  • chess (n)

    Flashcards

  • Multimedia PrincipleExample 2

  • Food trucks have become popular in the UAE.

    Present Perfect Grammar

    http://dubaicity.motivate.netdna-cdn.com/dubai/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Salt1.jpg

  • Multimedia PrincipleUse images to support language development

    but not as decoration

  • Modality Principle

  • Modality PrincipleAnimationNarration

    AnimationOn Screen Text

    http://melissaruhl.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Aha.pnghttp://www.butyoudontlooksick.com/tcS3_media/uploads/2011/07/brain-fog.jpg

  • Refers to simultaneous delivery

    Reduce overload & strain Deeper learning from

    speech

    Can increase production time of resources

    Modality PrinciplePeople learn better from animation and narration than from

    animation and on-screen text

    http://i.ytimg.com/vi/YFYErT0lZvw/hqdefault.jpg

  • Modality PrincipleExample 1

  • Modality PrincipleExample 2

  • Modality PrincipleUse animation and narration simultaneously to

    engage both inputs into working memory.

  • Redundancy Principle

  • Redundancy PrincipleAnimationNarration

    Animation+ Narration

    On Screen Text

    http://melissaruhl.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Aha.pnghttp://www.butyoudontlooksick.com/tcS3_media/uploads/2011/07/brain-fog.jpg

  • Relates to repetitive delivery of same info as text and narration

    Refers to simultaneous delivery

    Reduce overload & strain Deeper learning from speech Can increase production

    time of resources

    Redundancy PrinciplePeople learn better from animation and narration than from

    animation, narration and on-screen text

    http://i.ytimg.com/vi/YFYErT0lZvw/hqdefault.jpg

  • Redundancy PrincipleExample 1

  • Redundancy PrincipleExample 2

  • Exceptions to the modality and redundancy principlesCan include text when

    learners need vocabulary support

    including text adds valueCan narrate on screen text when

    emphasising or reinforcing points

    focusing on challenging language demonstrating pronunciation

    http://www.comments20.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/yellow-rose-red-roses-widescreen-wallpaper-1.jpg

  • http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/audio/video/2013/10/29/1383044174700/A-Pixar-illustration-that-010.jpgCoherence Principle

  • Delete anything irrelevant to instructional objective

    Why? Distraction Disruption Seduction Shorter

    Coherence PrinciplePeople learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and

    sounds are excluded rather than included.

    http://www.ucira.ucsb.edu/wp-content/files_flutter/13352998137777124.28.jpg

  • Coherence PrincipleExample 1

  • music from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGXnBZxcz5Q

  • Coherence PrincipleExample 2

  • Redundancy PrincipleIt is redundant to ask learners to read the text

    and listen at the same time.

  • http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/audio/video/2013/10/29/1383044174700/A-Pixar-illustration-that-010.jpg

    Image Principle

  • Dont distract from instructional material

    Focus on Language Listening, not watching

    Image PrinciplePeople do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the speakers image is added to the screen

    http://www.ucira.ucsb.edu/wp-content/files_flutter/13352998137777124.28.jpg

  • Image PrincipleExample 1

  • Image PrincipleExample 2

  • Exceptions to the image principle

    Can include image of self when

    learners need visual support

    including image / gestures / body language adds instructional value

    demonstrating pronunciation

    http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/storage.prezly.com/cd/adf2e0c31b11e4a11371052ba1b994/Fly-with-Me-Monsters-1.jpg

  • http://www.adweek.com/files/uploads/iStock-Unfinished-Business-2.jpg

    Critical Discussion

  • How relevant are these to ESL digital resources?

    How would you design resources differently now?

    How much of an impact would these have on your resource design and development?

  • StoryboardingTime to storyboard

    your next digital resource

  • http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_J7taI5Y_H9I/S88HbxV0yiI/AAAAAAAAAQ0/dQuiQTPwe44/s1600/Part+of+Zigby_Ep-129+pg9-20_Page_02.jpg

  • ReferencesClark, R., & Mayer, R. (2011). E-learning and the science of instruction : Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia Learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University PressSweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design . Learning and Instruction, 4, 292-312Sweller, J., Ayres, P., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive Load Theory (Explorations in the Learning Sciences, Instructional Systems and Performance Technologies).New York: Springer Education

  • Creating Digital Resources using Instructional Design

    Principles CJ Davison

    christina.davison@zu.ac.ae

    Nicholas Yatesnicholas.yates@zu.ac.ae