Click here to load reader

Cryptosporidium presentation

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


MLS Student presentation on Cryptosporidium

Text of Cryptosporidium presentation

  • 1. Angie BainStephanie Hood

2. Protozoan Phylum: Apicomplexa Class: Sporozoasida Order: Eucoccidiida Family Cryptosporiidae Genus: Species: parvum, muris, meleagridis, felis, etc. 3. Recognized in mice in 1907 Reported in humans in 1976 Immunocompetent child Immunosuppressed adult Recognized globally in 1980sand AIDS patientsErnest Edward Tyzzer Outbreak among veterinarystudents 4. Cryptosporidium is aspore producing parasitefound in the intestine ofinfected people andanimals. Cryptosporidium spp. is landesbioscience.comthe most common causeof Cryptosporidiosis. 5. Infection Ingesting food or drinkscontaminated with fecalmaterial Swallowing recreationalwater contaminated withsecretsofsoa.comCryptosporidium Not washing hands Sexual practices leadingto oral exposure withfecal material 6. Buries into intestinallining of the gut Goes through Life Cycle Alters osmotic pressure Diarrhea Atrophy of intestinal villi Alters uptake of fluids,electrolytes, and nutrients Malabsorption syndromeCDC DPDx Library 7. Symptoms (2 to 10 days afterinfection and can last up to30 days) Diarrhea Stomach Dehydration Nausea Vomiting Fever Weight loss Sometimes no symptoms areseen 8. White Blood CellsPhagocytize Parasites Segmented neutrophils Macrophages Lymphocytes 9. CD4+ T cells Early infection CD8+ T cells Elimination CD154 and CD40 Stimulate nitric oxide IFN-, IL-12 T cell response Apoptosis Other Cytokines TNF-, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-15, etc. Patients with AIDS Decreased CD4+ count Ashton-Rickardt, 2004 10. IgM IgG IgA X-linkedimmunodefiencey Mutations in CD154gene Defected IgM cannot allerresponz.commount immuneresponse 11. Specimen Source Multiple Stool Specimens Diagnostic Techniques Wet Mount Modified Acid Fast Stain Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA)Assay Detection Methods Safranin Stain Trichrome Stain Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Rapid Immunochromatographiccartridge Assays 12. Visualization of Oocysts 4 to 6 m Bight-Field Microscopy Differential Interferencecontrast (DIC) High Sensitivity and CDC DPDx LibrarySpecificity Wet Mount Slide 13. Visualization of Oocytes Light pink to dark red Can also visualize sporozoites Relatively High Sensitivity and Specificity Irregular Staining CDC DPDx Library cause ghost oocystsModified Acid Fast Stain 14. Fluorescence microscope Gold Standard High sensitivity andspecificity Does not providearchievable stained slide Requires special equipment CDC DPDx Library Fluorescent Stain Auramine Rhodamine 15. Safranin stain Oocysts stain a bright redorange Not widely used becauseoocysts may not stain properlyTrichrome Stain CDC DPDx Library Safranin Stain Oocysts may appear unstained Lowest sensitivity andspecificity among all tests Can detect Oocysts, butCryptosporidium should beconfirmed by diagnosticCDC DPDx Librarytechniques Trichrome Stain 16. Detects isolated antigensfrom a patients sampleusing antibodies that aretagged with a colorchanging enzyme. Relatively highSensitivity andSpecificity Does not Screens large numbers ofspecimens 17. Separates DNAfragments based onsize 435 bp High Sensitivity andSpecificity CDC DPDx Library 18. Detects isolated antigensfrom sample usingantibodies. A positive testis indicated by a coloredbar.Variable Sensitivity andalibaba.comSpecificity Some Assays Have BeenRecalled 19. Nitazoxanide Paromomycin Azithroycin Individuals withAIDS anti-retroviral 20. Ashton-Rickardt, P.G. A license to remember. Nat. Immunol.5, 1097-1098 (2004). Beach, M.J. And Johnston, S. P. Manufacturers recall of rapidcartridge assay kits on the basis of false-positive Cryptosporidiumantigen tests Colorado. MMWR. 53, 198-199 (2004). CDC. AccessedSeptember 22, 2011 Dillingham, R. A., Aldo, A. A., and Guerrant, R. L.Cryptosporidiosis: epidemiology and impact. Microb. Infect.4, 1059-1066 (2002). Mahon, C.R., Lehman, D.C., and Manuselis, G. Textbook ofDiagnostic Microbiology. 4th Ed. Elsevier (2011) Riggs, M. W. Recent Advances in cryptosporidiosis: the immuneresponse. Microb. Infect. 4, 1067-1080 (2002). Stevens, C.D. Clinical Immunology & Serology: A LaboratoryPerspective. 3rd Ed. F.A. Davis Company (2010). Tzipori, S. and Honorine, W. Cryptosporidiosis:biology, pathogenesis and disease. Microb. Infect. 4, 1047-1058(2002).