These slides were used in my presentation at JALTCALL 2014 on June 7, 2014 in Nagoya, Japan. I start by asking participants to question their own assumptions about learning (i.e. their ontological and epistemological beliefs), go on to present four frameworks for thinking about curriculum/course design, and then proceed to some examples. The presentation highlights the work of L. Dee Fink (2002) on Significant Learning Experiences.
Designing Blended Learning Experiences
Designing Blended Learning ExperiencesBrent A. JonesWorldview (Ontology)Theory of Knowledge (Epistemology)PositivistReality is out there to be studied, captured and understoodHow the world is really ordered; Knower is distinct from knownPostpositivistReality exists but is never fully apprehended, only approximatedApproximations of reality; Researcher is data collection instrumentConstructivistMultiple realities are constructedKnowledge as a human construction; Researcher and participant co-construct understandingsCritical/FeministThe apprehended world makes a material difference in terms of race, gender and classKnowledge as subjective and political; Researchers values frame inquiryPoststructuralistOrder is created within individual minds to ascribe meaning to a meaningless universeThere is no Truth to be known; Researchers examine the world through textual representations of itWorldview & Theory of Knowledge (adopted from Hatch, 2002)
Nuremburg FunnelI hope we agree that this approach to education does NOT work.
Pragmatic ParadigmFrameworksBlended LearningExamples
(for conceptualizing and undertaking curriculum/course design)Change Management21st Century SkillsSignificant Learning ExperiencesExperience Economy
Change ManagementJohn Kotter8 Step Process of Successful Change- Create a Sense of Urgency- Pull Together the Guiding Team- Develop the Change Vision and Strategy- Communicate for Understanding and Buy In- Empower Others to Act- Produce Short-Term Wins- Dont Let Up- Create a New CultureKotter, 2002
Haidt, 2006Heath & Heath, 2010 --DIRECT THE RIDERFollow the Bright Spots.Script the Critical Moves.Point to the Destination.
---------------------MOTIVATE THE ELEPHANTFind the Feeling. Shrink the Change.Grow Your People.
-------------------------------------SHAPE THE PATHTweak the Environment. Build Habits. Rally the Herd.Heath & Heath, 2010
21st Century Skills (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, n.d.)
Significant Learning Experiences (Fink, 2003)Backward DesignWhats important now and years after the course?What should students do in the course to succeed?Forward AssessmentImagine students in a situation where they would use the knowledge and/or skills.Focus the learning on realistic meaningful tasks.Significant Learning Experiences (Fink, 2003)1. Identify importantsituational factors.2. Identify importantlearning goals.3. Formulate appropriatefeedback and assessment procedures.4. Select effectiveteaching and learning activities.5. Make sure the primary components areintegrated.Initial Phase: BUILD STRONG PRIMARY COMPONENTS6. Create a thematicstructure for the course.7. Select or create ateaching strategy.8. Integrate the course structure and the instructional strategy to create anoverall scheme of learning activities.Intermediate Phase: ASSEMBLE THE COMPONENTSINTO A COHERENT WHOLE9. Develop thegrading system.10. Debug thepossible problems.11. Write the coursesyllabus.12. Plan anevaluationof the course and of your teaching.Final Phase: FINISH IMPORTANT REMAINING TASKS
Significant Learning Experiences (Fink, 2003)Castle-Top ModelPossible to Flip
The Experience Economy (Pine & Gilmore, 1999)Progression of Value
Realms of ExperienceThe Experience Economy (Pine & Gilmore, 1999)
Jonathan Bergmann Aaron SamsExamplesConvergent/Divergent TasksPeer TeachingProject ManagementWeb SearchesSelf StudyYour IdeasConvergent/Divergent Tasks
Convergent/Divergent TasksPeer Teaching
EducreationsPeer TeachingExplain Everything
Project ManagementProject Management
Web SearchesSelf Study
Your Ideas#1#2#3First Principles of InstructionMerrill (2006)The demonstration principle: Learning is promoted when learners observe a demonstrationThe application principle: Learning is promoted when learners apply the new knowledgeThe activation principle: Learning is promoted when learners activate prior knowledge or experienceThe integration principle: Learning is promoted when learners integrate their new knowledge into their everyday worldThe task-centered principle: Learning is promoted when learners engage in a task-centered instructional strategyExamplesGlobal ChallengesStudy Skills & Extensive ReadingJapan StudiesAppreciative Inquiry ProjectNot an "easy out"DIY Students (Teaching students to make best use of our educational offering)Changes Teacher's RoleRole model, cheerleader, resource, workshop facilitator OTHER CONSIDERATIONSwww.brentjones.comExtra Slides
Abstract: This workshop will walk participants through the course design and development process, with an emphasis on blended-learning curriculum for Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) contexts. Highlighting the work of L. Dee Fink (2003) in the area of Significant Learning Experiences, we will explore the different types of learning in Finks Taxonomy (foundational knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring and learning how to learn) while familiarising ourselves with his course design framework. Participants will be challenged to consider how each phase of this framework can inform and influence their own course design decisions, specifically the creation, adoption or adaptation of materials and methods to promote the acquisition of a new language as well as broader 21st century skills.Using examples of courses recently developed for a content-based English language program for university students in Japan, the presenter will discuss how Finks concepts of backward design (whats important now and years after the course, and what should students do in the course to succeed?) and forward assessment (imagining students in a situation where they would use the knowledge/skills, and focusing the learning on realistic meaningful tasks) have helped in both revamping existing courses and developing new ones. Participants will go away with several job aids to assist them in their own curriculum, course and lesson planning endeavours