Click here to load reader

Educational laws, practices, trends and issues

  • View
    1.324

  • Download
    49

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Educational laws, practices, trends and issues

Text of Educational laws, practices, trends and issues

  • 1. Educational Laws, Practices,Tends and Issues:e-Education Approach

2. Table of ContentsChapter I: Historical Evolution of Educational Goals and Objectives ................ 3Aims of Education during the Pre-Spanish Period ............................................ 3Goals of Education during the Spanish Regime................................................ 4Purposes of Education during the Revolutionary Period ................................. 4Objectives of Education during American Regime............................................ 5Aims of Education during the Commonwealth Government............................ 6Aims of Education during the Japanese Occupation ........................................ 6Objectives of Education under the Republic of the Philippines....................... 7Objectives of Education based on Sinco Committee Report........................... 8Mandate and Objectives of Education under the New Administration........... 9Chapter II: Laws Relating to Organization and Control...................................... 12The Philippine Constitution ................................................................................. 12Education Act of 1982.......................................................................................... 14Philippine Commission Act 1974 ....................................................................... 14Executive Orders 716 .......................................................................................... 15Republic Acts Relating to Organization and Control....................................... 15Chapter III: Laws Relating to Teaching Personnel ............................................. 18Republic Acts Relating to Teaching Personnel ............................................... 18Executive Orders Relating to Teaching Personnel ......................................... 19Chapter IV: Laws Relating to School Curriculum ................................................ 20Republic Acts Relating to School Curriculum .................................................. 201 3. Philippine Educational System ........................................................................... 20Chapter V: Laws Relating to Pupils or Students ................................................. 24Republic Acts Relating to Pupils or Students................................................... 24Other Legal Bases Related to Pupils and Students........................................ 25Chapter VI: Laws Affecting School Administration and Supervision................ 26Republic Acts Affecting School Administration and Supervision .................. 26Department Orders Affecting School Administration and Supervision ........ 27Chapter VII: Laws Relating to Finance and Support Services .......................... 28Republic Acts Relating to Finance and Support Services ............................. 28Additional Compensation to Teachers .............................................................. 28Fund for Assistance to Private Education......................................................... 29Bibliography............................................................................................................... 312 4. Chapter I: Historical Evolution of Educational Goals and ObjectivesFrom the Pre-Spanish to present, the educational system of thePhilippines has undergone several stages of development.Aims of Education during the Pre-Spanish PeriodDuring the Pre-Spanish era, the education of Filipinos was fit for the needsof their times. There was no formal schooling. Parents trained their childreninformally. Fathers taught their male chi ldren in hunting, carpentry, agriculture,shipbuilding and mining. Mothers taught their female children in housekeeping,weaving, basket-making and other agriculture-related activities. Skills taughtwould vary on their industries and locations, i.e., whether highland, lowlands or3along seashores.Education was oral, practical and hand-on. The aims of education are: forsurvival and conformity and for enculturation. It was more on domestic choresand practical honing and on theoretical and moral awakening. Teaching methodswere tell me and show me, observation and imitation, and indoctrination.During this period, education was still decentralized. Children wereprovided more vocational training but lesser academics, which were headed bytheir parents or by their tribal teachers. They used a unique system of writingknown as the baybayin, which means to spell. 5. Goals of Education during the Spanish RegimeThe pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes duringthe Spanish colonization. The tribal teachers were replaced by the Spanishmissionaries. Education was religion-centered and was compulsory for eliteSpanish. Boys and girls were separated. Religion was the core of the curriculum.During this regime, the Friars established parochial schools and linkedwith churches to teach catechism to the natives. Education was managed,4supervised and controlled.The Royal Decree of 1555 mandated these goals of Spanish education inthe country. These were indoctrination of Christianity, imposition of Spanishculture, and promotion of Spanish language. Education Decree of 1863 gaveFilipinos a complete system of education from elementary to collegiate level(Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012). The education of Filipino was focused mainly on thelearning of Christian Doctrine. It was simple catechism, the doctrina, not thesame as Christian education in Europe. The methods of teaching used duringthis era were: dictation, memorization, and other techniques such as cenaculo,moro-moro and other theatrical performances.Purposes of Education during the Revolutionary PeriodAfter the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the schoolsestablished during the Spanish era were closed down for a time by Emilio 6. Aguinaldos government. The Malolos Constitution made elementary educationcompulsory and provided free schooling. The curricula of schools were not muchdifferent from those under Spanish domination. Tagalog was established as thenational language by the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, reading, writing andliterary studies in Spanish were still given emphasis.Objectives of Education during American RegimeEducation became a very important issue for the American colonialgovernment since it allowed it to spread their cultural values, particularly theEnglish language, to the Filipino people. The aim of education was to promotedemocratic ideals and way of life. Training was done through schools (privateand secular) by Thomasites. Education was influenced by the philosophy of John5Dewey.They also implemented the Educational Act of 1901 that laid thefoundation of the Philippine school system- first level (seven-year elementaryschool), second level (four-year school) and third level (two-year junior collegeand a four-year program). The Monroe Commission on Philippine Education wascreated in 1925 with the aim of reporting on the effectiveness of the education inthe Phi lippines during the period of U.S. annexation. The 1927 American Directorof the Bureau of Education stated the aims of education. These were training forself-government and provision of English as common language. 7. Aims of Education during the Commonwealth GovernmentThe aims of education during the Commonwealth government were todevelop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and vocationalefficiency and to teach the duties of citizenship.Executive Order No. 17 in 1939 also known as Quezon Code ofCitizenship and Ethics, This legal mandate prescribed certain civic and ethicalprinciples to be taught in all schools in the Phi lippines which served as thefoundation of emerging philosophy of Philippine education. Executive Order No.134 in 1940 ordered Tagalog as the basis of national language while ExecutiveOrder No. 263 in 1940 required teaching of the Filipino national language.Aims of Education during the Japanese OccupationDuring the Japanese era, the aims of education were to make peopleunderstand the position of the Philippine as a member of the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, to remove the old idea of reliance upon western staresparticularly the United States and Great Britain, to evaluate the morals of thepeople by giving-up over emphasis on materialism, to diffuse elementary6 8. education and promote vocational education, and to include Nihonggo in7elementary level.Training was dome formally through schools. The government establishedagricultural schools and colleges. The content of curricula was centered onvalues rooted on love of labor emphasizing on vocational education.Proclamation No. 1 informed the people that authority of the US over thePhilippines was over and that the Martial Law was to rule and also made thecountry a member of the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.Objectives of Education under the Republic of the PhilippinesUnder the Republic of the Philippines, the aim of education focused ondemocracy and society. Content of curricula entailed on training for occupation,promotion of democratic nation building and of community development.Board of Textbooks was created according to RA 139 enacted on June14, 1947. Civil Service Eligibility of teachers was made permanent pursuant toRA1079. Board of National Education (BNE) was established to formulateeducational policies to give direction to Philippine education. Flag ceremony wasmade compulsory in all schools including the singing of national anthem, theLupang Hinirang. Elementary education was nationalized. 9. Objectives of Education based on Sinco Committee ReportThe Sinco plan would divide the secondary school course into twoperiods. The first period, of three years, would complete the basic educationwhich every citizen should have; it would be a terminal course for all those whowould not continue their studies. The subsequent period, two years in length,would be either a vocational secondary c

Search related