NG LEK YUEN | 0324010 | FNBE JULY 2015LECTURERS : MS DELLIYA MS HASMANIRA MISS IFFAFINAL PROJECT | PART A | ENBE
BANDAR TUN RAZAK
INTRODUCTION TO CITYPAST, PRESENT & FUTURE CITY
TOWN PLANNING PRINCIPLES - NEIGHBOURHOOD UNITTHE BETTER FUTURE TOWN GUIDELINES
THE CITY THAT I LIVE IN - BANDAR TUN RAZAKPROPOSAL FOR THE BETTER FUTURE CITY
INTRODUCTION TO CITY
A city is a large and permanent place for human settle down and it generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and trans-portation.
THE CITY OF URUK
the city of uruk past cityIn the ancient world, a city is an urban center which have:- dense population- certain pattern of buildings spreading out from a cen-tral religious complex such as a temple- laws and rules
They are also defined as large communities of people who have decided to live together.
Location: East of the present bed of the Euphrates riv-er, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphra-tes River (some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthanna, Iraq.)
Feature:  Considered the first true and also oldest city in the world, was first set-tled in c. 4500 BCE and walled cities, for defence, were common by 2900 BCE throughout the region. An ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, At its height c 2900 BC, Uruk probably had 50,000-80,000 residents living in 6 km sq. of walled area. The origin of writing Proper waste management and sanitation Defense structure The first city to develop the cylinder seal which the ancient Mesopo-tamians used to designate personal property or as a signature on docu-ments.
The stone temple, base of the Ziggurat at the archaeological site of Uruk in Warka
The structures follow the two main typologies of Sumerian architecture, Tripartite with 3 parallel halls and T-Shaped also with three halls, but the central one extends into two perpendicular bays at one end
Part of the facade of the temple of Inanna at Uruk. There are standing male and female deities in alter-nate niches
Round Pillar Hall in UrukTemple N, Cone-Mosaic Courtyard, and Round Pillar Hall are often referred to as a single structure; the Cone-Mosaic Temple.
The origins of writing in the form of cuneiform script representing
the Sumerian language
The city of Uruk had two major public complexes in the Uruk period. One of these was the Anu ziggurat and White Temple, both dedicated to the Mesopotamian sky-god Anu. Several architectural features of the building complex had appeared first in the Ubaid period, show-ing the continuity between the two phases.
toronto, canada present cityLocation: Toronto, Ontario, Canada(Located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario)Coordinates: 4342 N 7924 WCity Area: 630.21 km2 (243.33 sq mi)Population: 2,615,060
Feature:  The largest and also the most populous city in Canada and the capital of the province of Ontario. A city of high-rises, having 1,800 buildings over 30 metres (98 ft). The Casa Loma neighbourhood is named after Casa Loma, a storybook castle built in 1911 complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, secret passages, and a bowling alley. Beautiful architectual buildings such as Pavilion at Brookfield Place and Royal Ontario Museum (a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Canada. It is one of the largest museums in North America, the largest in Canada. Yonge-Dundas Square, the city's newest and flashiest public square.
In the present, a city is a large town which have:- Big size of land- Dense of population- Continuos water and electric supply- Occupation- Education- Transportation- Social mobility- Laws and rules
360-degree panorama of Toronto as seen from the CN Tower.
Night view of Toronto city (Picture above)
Location of Casa Loma
Casa Loma, on Austin Terrace at Spadina Road, also on an escarpment (Davenport Hill) above Davenport Road. (Picture Below)
The Pavilion is the new front door into Brookfield Place, the Lower Manhattan landmark formerly known as the World Financial Center designed by Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects (Picture Below)
Dun-das-Yonge square, To-rontos very
own version of Times
Square (Picture Top
BCE Place Galleria in Toronto Cana-da, designed by
Santiago Calatra-va, looking East
(Picture at Right)
Casa Loma underground secret passage(Picture Above)
The Royal Ontario Museum, a muse-um of art, world cul-ture and natural history in Toronto, Canada.(Picture at Left)
tokyo, japan future cityJapans Ocean Spiral, the futuristic concept proposed as giantunderwater city by Japanesearchitecture firm Shimizu Corp.
The company says the Ocean Spiral would take 5 years to build and the technology required will be ready in 15 years to confront increasing global problems such as rising sea levels and the need to create new, clean energy sources in the future.
Features: An underwater metropolis that generates energy from the seabed and is capable of providing homes and accommodation for 5,000 people. The structure will stretch all the way to the crushing black depths 2.8 miles under the sea off the coast of Japan. Giant sphere with a diameter 500 meters (1,640 feet) situated just below the surface will form the first section and house residential zones, businesses and hotels. This inhabited area will be connected to a nine-mile spiral (section 2) that that descends to the seabed where a deep-sea submarine port and factory(section 3) will create the energy required to power the sphere by using micro-organisms that turn carbon diox-ide into methane.
neighbourhood unit town planning principlesClarence Arthur Perry (1872-1944) was an American planner. He formulated his early ide-as about the neighborhood unit and commu-nity life which is 5-minute walk to define walk-ing distances from residential to non-residential components. Perry was very concerned about the walkability to and from schools. His ide-as were realized in neighborhoods like Rad-burn through the work of Clarence Stein.
Perry's 6 basic principles of neighbourhood theory:
 Traffic routes should not pass through residential neighbourhoods. Interior street pattern should be de-signed and constructed through use of cul-de-sacs, curve layout and light duty surfacing The population of the neighbourhood should be that which is necessary to sup-port its elementary school. The neighbourhood focal point should be the elementary school centrally lo-cated on a common or green along with other institutions that have services area coincident with the neighbourhood bound-aries. The radius of the neighbourhood should be a maximum of 1/4 mile Shopping dictricts should be sited at the edge of the neighbourhood.
Sir Clarence Arthur Perry, one of the famous people in plan-ning during the 5th century B.C. (Picture Above)
The neighbourhood unit plan in 1929 which in-cluded traffic routes, safe interior street patterns, estimated population, schools, green spaces and service area.(Picture at bottom left)
The traditional neighbor-hood includes a high level
of connectivity allowing actual walk distances to nearly meet the 1/4 mile
radius.(Picture at bottom right)
The conventional suburban model of development provides very little connec-tivity from the residences to the places of business making it very auto-dependent.(Picture at above)
The Neighbourhood Idea
A sound area for living with:
 Adequate school and parks within a half mile walk Major streets around rather than through the neigh-bourhood Seperate reidential and non residential districts Population large enough to support an elementary school. Usually 5000 to 10000 people Some neighbourhood stores and services
Reproduced from Comprehensive Planning for The Whittier Neighbourhood, courtesy of Minneapolis City Planning Commision Perry's original concept.(Picture at Below)
The neighbourhood unit was conceived of as a comprehensive physical planning tool, to be utilised for designing self-contained residential neighbourhoods which promot-ed a community centric lifestyle, away from the noise and air pollution.
Examples of well neighbourhood planning.Pictures at Left and Above.
Chicago's Southside, shows a clearly definable neigh-bourhood subdistrict planning.
[A] Physical feature - the large open park to the north.
[B] Major Street - Stony Island Avenue, with its heavy traffic and major bus route, to the west.
[C] Ethnic grouping - an almost 100 per cent Negro population and an almost 100 per cent white pop-ulation are seperated, at least temporarily, by Stony Island Avenue.
[D] Focal points - the retail shopping area along both sides of Stony Island Avenue is a local center of pedestrian attraction.
[E] Residential building type - the six residential blocks in the subdistrict are comprised exclusively of three story apartment house. There is an abrupt shift to prestige type single family residences to the east and to a mixture of one and two family dwellings to the south.
[F] Neighbourhood associations - attempts are un-derway to organize a local citizens groupto improve the area within the neighbourhood subgroup bound-aries.
[G] Community facility service areas - all public school elementary pupils in the subdistrict attend the Parkside Elementary School.