1. Endangered Animals: Indian Rhinoceros Done by: Transbuggies Alan, Danish, Kai Wen, Rusydah
2. Introduction Danish Hakim The Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is also called Greater One-horned Rhinoceros and Asian One-horned Rhinoceros and belongs to the Rhinocerotidae family.
3. Description Rusydah, Alan, Kai wen In size, one-horned rhinos are equal to the African white rhinos; together they are the largest of all rhino species. Fully grown males are larger than females, weighing from 2,200 to 3,000 kg (4,900 to 6,600 lb). Female one-horned rhinos weigh about 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). They are from 1.7 to 2 m (5 ft 7 in to 6 ft 7 in) tall and can be up to 4 m (13 ft) long. The record-sized specimen weighed approximately 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). The Indian rhino's single horn is present in both males and females, but not on newborn young. The black horn, like human fingernails, is pure keratin and starts to show after about 6 years. In most adults, the horn reaches a length of about 25 cm (9.8 in), but has been recorded up to 57.2 cm (22.5 in) in length. The nasal horn curves backwards from the nose. In captive animals, the horn is frequently worn down to a thick knob. This rhinoceros has thick, silver-brown skin which becomes pinkish near the large skin folds that cover its body. Males develop thick neck-folds. Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps. It has very little body hair, aside from eyelashes, ear-fringes and tail-brush.
4. Habitat Alan This huge rhinoceros is found in the Terai at the foot of the Himalayas, from Bhotan to Nepal. It is more common in the eastern portion of the Terai than the west, and is most abundant in Assam and the BhotanDooars. I have heard from sportsmen of its occurrence as far west as Rohilcund, but it is certainly rare there now, and indeed along the greater part of the Nepal Terai; ... Jelpigoree, a small military station near the Teesta River, was a favourite locality whence to hunt the Rhinoceros and it was from that station Captain Fortescue, of the late 73rd N.I., got his skulls, which were, strange to say, the first that Mr. Blyth had seen of this species, of which there were no specimens in the Museum of the Asiatic Society at the time when he wrote his Memoir on this group. The Indian rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain but excessive hunting reduced their natural habitat drastically. Today, about 3,000 rhinos live in the wild, 2,000 of which are found in India's Assam alone.
5. Behaviour Kai wen Rhinos are mostly solitary creatures, with the exception of mothers and calves and breeding pairs, although they sometimes congregate at bathing areas. They have home ranges, the home ranges of males being usually 2 to 8 km2 (0.77 to 3.1 sq mi) large and overlapping each other. Dominant males tolerate males passing through their territory except when they are in mating season, when dangerous fights break out. They are active at night and early morning. They spend the middle of the day wallowing in lakes, rivers, ponds, and puddles to cool down. They are very good swimmers.
6. Diet Danish, Rusydah Their diet consists almost entirely of grasses, but the rhino is also known to eat leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruits and submerged and floating aquatic plants. Feeding occurs during the morning and evening. The rhino uses its prehensile lip to grasp grass stems, bend the stem down, bite off the top, and then eat the grass. With very tall grasses or saplings, the rhino will often walk over the plant, with its legs on both sides, using the weight of its body to push the end of the plant down to the level of the mouth. Mothers also use this technique to make food edible for their calves. They drink for a minute or two at a time, often imbibing water filled with rhinoceros urine.
7. ReproductionRusydah In zoos, females may breed as young as four, but in the wild females are usually six before breeding begins. The higher age in the wild may reflect that females need to be large enough to avoid being killed by the aggressive males. The Indian rhinoceros has a very lengthy gestation period of around 15.7 months. The interval between births ranges from 3451 months. In captivity, males may breed at five years. But in the wild, dominant males do the breeding and rhinos do not attain dominance until they are older and larger. In one five-year field study, only one rhino who achieved mating success was estimated to be younger than 15.
8. Threats Transbuggies Poaching for rhinoceros horn became the single most important reason for the decline of the Indian rhino after conservation measures were put in place from the beginning of the 20th century, when legal hunting ended. From 1980 to 1993, 692 rhinos were poached in India. In India's Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary 41 rhinos were killed in 1983, virtually the entire population of the sanctuary. By the mid-1990s, poaching had rendered the species extinct there. In 1950, Chitwans forest and grasslands extended over more than 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi) and were home to about 800 rhinos. When poor farmers from the mid-hills moved to the Chitwan Valley in search of arable land, the area was subsequently opened for settlement, and poaching of wildlife became rampant. The Chitwan population has repeatedly been jeopardized by poaching: in 2002 alone, poachers have killed 37 animals cruelly in order to saw off and sell their valuable horns. There are six recorded ways of killing rhinos: Shooting is by far the most common method used; rhino horn traders hire sharpshooters and often supply them with rifles and ammunition. Trapping in a pit depends largely on the terrain and availability of grass to cover it; pits are dug out in such a way that a fallen animal has little room to manoeuvre with its head slightly above the pit, so that it is easy to saw off the horn. Electrocuting is used where high voltage powerlines pass through or near a protected area, to which poachers hook a long insulated rod connected to a wire, which is suspended above a rhino path. Poisoning by smearing zinc-phosphide rat poison or pesticides on salt licks frequently used by rhinos. Spearing has only been recorded in Chitwan National Park. With a noose, which cuts through the rhino's skin and kills it by strangulation.
10. Videos: Indian rhinoceroses cooling themselves in water
11. Videos: Indian rhinoceros calf
12. Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz
13. Quiz 1. The Indian Rhino is also called the _______________. Asian One-horned Rhinoceros Northen Two horned rhino Greater two-horned rhinoceros
14. Quiz 2. Where is the Indian Rhino found at? Singapore Terai mexico
15. Quiz 3. At which age(youngest) will the rhino breed? 5 4 6