This is the presentation for a paper presented by Kate Timms-Dean and Jenny Rudd (Otago Polytechnic) at the National Tertiary Learning & Teaching Conference 2011, in Nelson, New Zealand.The presentation provides a pedagogical framework for Māori learner engagement based on tikanga Māori (Māori custom) and models such as strengths and empowerment theories.
- 1.Engaging Mori Learners: A Pedagogical Framework Kate Timms-Dean and Jenny Rudd, Otago Polytechnic, 2011
2. Mihi & Mihimihi
- Greet each other: Tn koe (hello to one)
- Who are your ancestors, where do they come from?
- Who are your parents, where do they come from?
- Who are you? Where do you come from? Where do you live?
- Include siblings, partner and children if you want to
3. The Koru Model of Teaching &Learning
- Koru is the young fern frond or leaf
- Consists of stalk and blades
- When young tightly furled
Blades 4. The Koru Model of Teaching &Learning
- Koru used in carving and tattoos
- Associated with identity, growth and new life
- the passing of life, information and resources from one generation to the next
(Tauroa, 2009; Wilson 2001-2003) 5. The Koru Model of Teaching &Learning Mauri Manaaki Whakapapa Whanaungatanga Tmanako & Pmanawa Tautoko Aroha Empowerment 6. Mauri
- Why do we see the mauri as so central in a teaching and learning model?
- How do we go about nurturing it?
7. Why nurturing the mauri is central
- Fears and anxieties weaken the mauri and reduce a students capacity to engage and learn
- Students come with fears and anxieties
8. Reducing Fears and Anxiety
- Clear course outlines, explicit marking criteria
- Introducing students to support services
- An Amazing Race campus tour
- A treasure hunt in the Library
A good orientation and induction process can reduce fears and anxieties: But for some students the fears and anxieties go very much deeper. 9. Reducing Fears and Anxiety
- Brainstorming and sharing fears
Can all help but for some students the fears and anxieties go much deeper still.. 10. Why nurturing the mauri is central Smith (2010, p.14) has this to say .In a classroom situation, having been a teacher for many years, I have always thought about working with young childrenhow easy itis to hurt the mauri, as a teacher,as someone in power. A look, aword, an action can all dodamage and it can happen in asingle moment. Easy to damage, hard to recover 11. How do we nurture our students mauri? By attending to. 12. Manaaki Included in our framework to indicate importance of taking care of students physical, mental, spiritual and social needs.
- Hospitality: providing a nurturing environment
- Ensuring that people feel welcome
13. Manaaki Taking Care of Learners Physical, Mental, Spiritual & Social Needs Physical Mental Spiritual Social
- Flat structure (not lecture theatre)
- Dedicated space (a home base for students)
- Attending to learning styles
- VARK approach to assessments
- Appropriate support and scaffolding
- One on one tutorial support
- Clarity about expectations, structure, roles and boundaries responsibilities
- Powhiri/ mihi whakatau/mihi haere
- Opening and closing rituals
- Acknowledging ancestors/ Whakapapa
- Acknowledging ancestors presence
- Carving,weaving or painting
- Genealogy: incorporates ancestors as well as immediate whnau.
Included in our framework to indicate importance of creating space for ancestors and whnau in the classroom. 15. Whakapapa Creating Space for Ancestors & Whnau in the Classroom
- Appreciating that students belong to whanau and that this has implications for who they are and what they bring
- Encouraging potential students to bring whanau members to initial pre-course meetings
- Including a meet the family session during orientation
- Including whanau in official welcoming ceremonies
- A whanau orientated signature search
- Allowing children to come to class as required and making it comfortable for parents to feel okay about children being present
- Fostering a family tolerant environment among class members
- Asking class members to invite whanau with relevant expertise to come to class and share their stories and experiences
- Inviting whanau to assessment presentations and end of term/semester/year celebrations establishing a class culture around this
- Being flexible about due dates in recognition of family/community responsibilities
- Creating opportunities to talk about whanau/whakapapa and share photos histories, and family stories
- Using mihi whakatau and mihi haere ceremonies within your class
- Sharing of yourself appropriately to indicate that it is okay to talk about family
- Using the term whakapapa and talking about ancestry and the way that it impacts on values, beliefs, customs and so on
- The building and maintenance of whnau connections and relationships through shared experience.
- Extends to non-kinship relations where there is mutual need, support and reciprocity.
Included in our framework to indicate the importance establishing relationship, belonging and a sense of community 17. Whanaungatanga Establishing Relationships, Belonging & a Sense of Community
- Modelling warm, trusting and reciprocal relationships between staff involved on a programme including support, teaching, tutoring and management
- Ice breakers and name games are essential. Plan orientation activities so that students go for breaks in groups or in pairs with tasks to discuss. This helps to form relationships and ensures that students arent left out or alone in these initial days.
- Making time to see students one on one
- Having an open door policy or an open door policy one day per week
- Provide opportunities for students to share their stories and experiences during class time or as part of assessments.
- Lots of group activities during class time provides an excellent opportunity to move among the groups and build relationships with group members
- Discussion based activities in the classroom allow students to get to know each other
- Incorporate activities involving self-awareness and awareness of others into orientation sessions:temperament, personality and learning styles tests work well with class discussion regarding individual and group characteristics and needs i
- Sharing of characteristics and needs in the creation of a class kawa
- Group work activities that include developing and revisiting a group kawa.
- Group activities that encourage students meeting outside of class time
- Planned social events as part of the academic year
- Discussion forums/ Facebook
18. Tumanako & Pmanawa
- Tmanakorefers to desires or aspirations whilePmanawarefers to natural talents.
Included in our framework to indicate the importance of a Strengths approach when seeking to engage Mori students. 19. Tmanako & Pmanawa Attending to Aspirations & Fostering Natural Talents & Strengths
- Focusing on talents, aspirations, resources and opportunities
- Have students carry out a strengths analysis to identify their own strengths and support needs
- Encouraging students to develop and share aspiration based goal plans