- 1. ETHICAL DILEMMAS/ ISSUES INCYBERWORLD
2. Ethical dilemma is a complex situation that will often involve an apparentmental conflict between moral imperatives, in which to obey one wouldresult in transgressing another. also called an ethical paradox. 3. - occurs when there is an intrusion upon your reasonableexpectation to be left alone. 4. Intrusion of Solitude Appropriation of Name or Likeness Public Disclosure of Private Facts False Light 5. Intrusion of Solitude This type of invasion of privacy is commonly associated with"peeping Toms," someone illegally intercepting private phonecalls, or snooping through someone's private records. 6. occurs when someone uses the name or likeness of another fortheir own benefit. 7. Public disclosure of private facts occurs when someone publishes hurtful, embarrassing or offensive factsabout a person's private life 8. False Light arises anytime you unflatteringly portray - in words or pictures- aperson as something that he or she is not. 9. HACKINGThe word hacking has two definitions.the first definition refers to thehobby/profession of working withcomputers.the second definition refers to breaking intocomputer systems.In the Web site wisegeek.com they defines computer "hacking" as"the practice of modifying computer hardware and software toaccomplish a goal outside of the creator's original purpose. " 10. There are three category of hackers:Hacktivists - those who hack as a form of politicalactivism.Hobbyist hackers - those who hack to learn, for fun orto share with other hobbyists.Research and Security Hackers - those concerned with discoveringsecurity vulnerabilities and writing the code fixes. 11. Ethical Theories ofHACKINGETHICAL QUESTIONSFrom a Utilitarian PerspectiveFrom a Rights PerspectiveFrom Fairness or Justice PerspectiveFrom a Common Good PerspectiveFrom a Virtue Perspective 12. Is there any information that should really be kept secret? How do we balance the need for transparency with the need to protect ourselves,for example, from groups who do not believe in transparency and other democraticvalues? Do we trust the ability of hackers to balance out the good and the harm that mayresult from their disclosures? Do we trust governments or corporations more, when it comes to striking thatbalance?From a Utilitarian Perspective 13. From a Rights Perspective Do all of us have an absolute right to access all the information available on theInternet? Do we have a right to communicate and associate freely? And, if so, does hacking promote freedom of speech and of association by breakingbarriers set up around certain information? Should hacking be seen as a way of critiquing a system in orderto reform it, somewhat similar to parody? 14. From Fairness or Justice Perspective Does hacking then make Internet use more fair, by allowing to any useraccess to information that would otherwise be available only to some? Or is hacking an unjust takeover of information from those who don'thave the know-how or resources to protect it? 15. From a Common Good Perspective Is unrestricted access to information one path to individual andcommunal fulfillment? Or does hacking undermine the usefulness of the Internet as acommon good because it makes users reluctant to share informationonline? Overall, does hacking promote or hinder the development ofrelationships and the building of community? 16. From a Virtue Perspective Are hackers pushing individuals to become more virtuous users of theInternetor are they mostly tearing down what others have built, andultimately limiting the usefulness of the Internet? Does hacking promote the development of ethical character? 17. SECURITY Security as a form of protection are structures and processes that provideor improve security as a condition.Information security (IS) is designed to protect the confidentiality,integrity and availability of computer system data from those withmalicious intentions. 18. C-I-AConfidentiality - protecting information from beingdisclosed to unauthorized parties.Integrity - protecting information from being changed byunauthorized parties.Availability - to the availability of information toauthorized parties only when requested. 19. MEASURES TO PROTECT COMPUTER SECURITY Restricting access both to the hardware locations (physicalaccess) and into the system itself (over the network) usingfirewalls Implementing a plan to prevent break-ins Changing passwords frequently Making backup copies Using anti-virus software Encrypting data to frustrate interception Anticipating disasters (disaster recovery plan) Hiring trustworthy employees 20. THEFT(Identity Theft) it happens when someone steals your personal informationand uses it without your permission a serious crime can disrupt your finances, credit history, and reputation take time, money, and patience to resolve. 21. OCCURS BY: Stealing your wallets and purses containing identification cards, creditcards and bank information. Stealing your mail including credit and bank statements, phone or utilitybills, new checks, and tax information. Completing a change of address form to redirect the destination ofyour mail. Rummaging through your trash for discarded personal data in a practiceknown as dumpster diving. Taking personal information that you share or post on the Internet. 22. PREVENTION1. Use passwords on all your credit card, bank, and phone accounts.2. Never keep passwords, PINs or your SSN card in your wallet or purse.3. Learn about security procedures in your workplace.4. Never give out personal information on the phone, through mail, or overthe internet unless you know the receiver and have initiated the contact.5. Guard your mail and trash from theft.6. Shred or destroy discarded financial statements in your trash.7. Give your SSN only when absolutely necessary.8. Keep your purse or wallet in a safe place at work.