FET N4 Module 1 Basic communication process

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For FET students in South Africa studying N4 Communication. This is a summary of Module 1


  • 1. p.2-30 1
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  • 3. Speak effectively, express themselves and convey information clearly Listen well Provide sensible feedback Maintain sound interpersonal relationships Motivate, encourage and persuade co-workers towards achieving specific goals Consider problems logically and solve them adequately Minimise and resolve conflict Ensure effective team work and group discussions Increase productivity Ensure objectives of the organisation are achieved Maintain good external public relations 3
  • 4. Communication is a two-way process during which information is transmitted in a specific code (eg. language) and by means of a specific channel (or medium) from a sender to a receiver, who reacts to the stimulus by means of feedback. 4
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  • 6. Transmitter (Tx): It is the source of the comm, sender of the message or the communicator. He uses his whole body to encode the message. Message via code and channel (or medium). It is the information the sender intends to convey. He uses a code (example English, morse code). He transmits via a channel (telephone, letter) Receiver (R): The destination of the message, the respondent or the communicatee. The person for whom the message is intended. 6
  • 7. Feedback: Reaction of the receiver to the message of the sender. Feedback may be conscious or subconscious, verbal or nonverbal. Indicates extent to which the message has been understood. Noise: also known as interference or barriers. It can be caused by factors within either the sender or the receiver of the message (known as internal interference). It can be external interference (like an aeroplane passing overhead or excessive heat/cold). 7
  • 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. Intrapersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Mass communication Media communication 8
  • 9. Communication within oneself, e.g. Thinking Meditating Dreaming Planning conversations Considering alternatives 9
  • 10. Communication between two individuals Communication between individuals within specific groups - 3 to 36 people Definitions to know: formal group, informal group, roles, peer groups. Communication between various groups 10
  • 11. Virtually simultaneous communication of the same message by a sender to many receivers. All receive and interpret the message individually. Newspapers Magazines Radio Television Film 11
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  • 13. This term refers to the channels of communication in general. Also used as a synonym for the term sender. It also refers to the complete spectrum of audio-visual aids used by communicators Examples: charts, graphic representations, notice boards, chalk boards, flip charts, overhead projector, slides, films, videos Choice is determined by The objective which the sender wants to achieve The needs and expectations of the target audience 13
  • 14. Personality Integrated organisation of an individuals psychological, social, moral and physical qualities, as expressed in his interaction with his environment and particularly in his interaction with other people. Frame of reference Reasoning Total context (background) within which an individual perceives and judges matters. Logical, coherent process of thinking Emotions Feelings such as hatred, love, fear, happiness, anguish, etc. experienced by a person 14
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  • 17. Verbal Comm Non-verbal Comm 17
  • 18. Spoken: Direct: sender and receiver has eye-contact Examples: interviews, discussions in groups Indirect: no eye-contact can be maintained Examples: telephone, radio or television address Written Indirect: no eye contact Examples: letters, books, magazines Less indirect: A personal letter, addressed to a specific individual More indirect: Newspaper reports aimed at the public. 18
  • 19. Transmission of messages by means other than language, e.g. gestures, facial expressions, dress etc. 1. Visual semiology (depends on the sight of the receiver of the message) 2. Acoustic semiology (depends on the hearing of the receiver of the message) 3. Tacesics or communication by means of touch (depends on the sense of touch of the receiver of the message) 19
  • 20. Kinesics: comm of messages by means of bodily movement e.g. nod, frown, other facial expressions. Proxemics: How people use distance and space to communicate their ideas movement Intimate zone: distance meter (affectionate zone) Personal zone: distance - 1 meter Social zone: 1 2 meters Public zone: more than 2 meters Graphics: use of different types of lettering, photographs and illustrations to convey messages. Examples: bar charts, pie charts, pictograms Colour: red = danger, white = purity, black = mourning 20
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  • 23. Do you agree with the chart on the right? Which colour makes you feel happy? 23
  • 24. It involves reading messages from certain sounds or auditive signals other than language. Paralinguistics (i.e. semi-language) 1. 2. 3. 4. Pitch Tempo/Rhythm Intensity Accent Filler sounds: interjections in the form of sounds. Music: soft music=soothing, loud=frighten Silence: Strategic use of silence conveys various messages. 24
  • 25. Pitch: a shrill voice might indicate fear or emotional upheaval, whereas a deep voice could indicate concern Tempo and Rhythm: reflect a variation of tempo and rhythm someone speaks slowly = a bore, someone speaks rapidly = nervous Intensity: indicates how much emotion is behind what is being said. Thats pretty! Accent: Ones region of birth can be deduced from the way one forms or emphasises words. 25
  • 26. Cultural relativity of non-verbal comm p.17 1. Cultural relativity: (definition): members of different culture groups attach different meanings to identical, non-verbal cues. (page 18) Examples: Use of space: Western males feel uncomfortable when sharing personal space. Arabs find it acceptable. Eye contact: Westerners look you in the eye. Africans see it as a sign of disrespect. Colour symbolism : purple shows mourning in some cultures, in other it shows wealth 26
  • 27. Purple: these officers are mourning the death of a fellow officer in Chicago, June 2010. They salute the purple cloth hanging over the Chicago police Dept signage. These ladies wears black, mourning the death of family. 27
  • 28. An effective communicator uses non-verbal comm to support/emphasise his verbal comm Using strategic use of gestures Dressing appropriately Opposite is true: transmitting two contradictory messages simultaneously one verbal, one non-verbal Come inside, lets discuss your problem, the manager says but he glances anxiously at his watch whilst letting the employee into his office. 28
  • 29. The use of words in order to establish rapport or indicate a particular interpersonal or social relationship rather than to convey meaning. Meta-communication: used to indicate mainly non-verbal but also verbal clues which indicate how a particular message should be understood. Both indicate the attitude of the sender of the message, rather than specific factual information. 29
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  • 31. People listen for a variety of reasons: Promote social interaction and enjoyment Acquire information, insight and understanding Study effectively 31
  • 32. Thinking speed is 3 to 4 times faster than talking speed (125 to 200 words per min.) Mans attention is distracted easily and his memory span is limited. Mans motivation to listen his interest and will to listen is often lacking Receivers listening skills are impeded by a negative attitude and prejudice Listener ignores verbal context within which a specific message is conveyed. Listener ignores non-verbal cues which qualify the accompanying verbal message. People pretend they are listening. External and internal barriers: noise, telephones (ext) Exhaustion, lack of interest, prejudice, depression (int) 32
  • 33. Prepare yourself physically, psychologically Listen actively and show interest in subject. Coordinate your thoughts with those of the speaker. Identify prejudices, resist temptation to transfer them to the content matter discussed. Distinguish between the main ideas and supporting details. Listen selectively Be alert for verbal clues indicating specific emphasis or a twist in the senders message or attitude. Interpret meanings of expressions in terms of the total context from within they are uttered. 33
  • 34. Enable the listener to broaden his basis of knowledge Lead to improved interpersonal relationships They reduce the possibility of misunderstandings They improve personal efficiency They result in grievances and problems being identified timeously They save time and money They ensure goodwill and win clients 34
  • 35. What can you do to improve your listening skills? 35
  • 36. You may be asked to illustrate a comm model (like Jacobson p.4) after given a piece of text to read. These are application questions. See page 27-28 for more information and work through old question papers. 36
  • 37. The following small groups are operative in most organisations: Command (executive groups): Superior and his subordinates Democratic groups Coordination of members and their expertise Consensus groups Formed to solve problems Buzz groups Used for brainstorming rather than decision-making Information-sharing groups One member have info to share with rest of group 37
  • 38. Formal small groups evolve from one or more (initially formal) structures or networks. The ideal small group structure is the socalled open channel (every group member is regarded as equal, irrespective of his position in the formal hierarchy of the organisation). Open channels 38
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