MEDIA KEY TERMS Images and Definitions for Revision
G322 Section AEDITING
Key Terms ContinuityContinuity Editing (aka invisible editing)180 degree ruleMatch on action (match cuts)Shot reverse shotEye-line matchCross cutting (aka parallel action)Insert shotReaction shotCutawayPaceTime (temporal ellipsis and temporal extension)Transitions (cut, dissolve, fade and wipe)Montage Editing
EDITING - DEFINITIONEDITING IS A KEY PART OF THE POST PRODUCTION PROCESS
The stage in the story-telling process in which sound and images are organised to construct an overall narrative.
Remember that an audience is a non-active participant who must understand a narrative through the editing, they can only see what you show them.
Imagine a film or even a scene from a film without any editing, it would be very interesting!
Transitions The cut
Straight cut one frame directly after the other. Used 99% of the time.
Jump cut an error in continuity editingEx. One frame = man sitting on chairNext frame = man suddenly standing up*sometimes this is used on purpose to create jumpy/scary effect (ex the ring coming out of TV - choppy)BE CAREFUL THIS ONE OF THE MOST MISUSED WORDS IN THE EXAM.
Transitions The dissolve
Sometimes gets called a mix because the 2 frames appear to mix or dissolve into one another.Usually used to signify a passing of time (and sometimes location).Often confused with a fade.
Transitions The fade
The image on screen fades out (usually to a black to screen).Usually used to signify a passing of time for example, the end of a dayOften confused with a dissolve.
Transitions The wipe
The image on screen is wiped away by the image that replaces it.Like the dissolve and the fade, can b used to signify a passing of time.Not used all that often as it can be quite noticeable and therefore can compromise realism and continuity.
ContinuityThe key word in continuity is CONTINUEIt is to make sure things are continuous
ClipsDid you notice the editing?
NO! Because good editing is INVISIBLE!
Continuity ErrorsMany things can cause continuity errors-shots/angles-costume/props-lighting etc
What is wrong with the continuity in this clip?
Continuity EDITINGContinuity EditingThe most common type of editing which aims to create a sense of reality and time moving forward.
Also known as invisible editing referring to how the technique does not draw attention to the editing process but allows the audience to concentrate on the narrative.
Various filming rules and techniques are applied to ensure this smooth continuity.
Basically, continuity editing is so that scenes look continuous. (the flow)
Techniques/rules of continuity editing:-180 degree rule-match on action (match cuts)-shot reverse shot-eye-line match-crosscutting or parallel editing
Continuity editing: 180 degree rule
Purpose: Is to orientate the viewer, to establish the placement of characters.Breaking the rule makes it appear that the characters have changed positions.
180 degree rule cont.
Continuity editing: match on action1 ACTION = MULTIPLE SHOTS
Is multiple cuts to show one continuous action. Match on action is part of invisible editing which creates flow when watching a scene.The cuts MATCH together so that the audience know it is one action.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DMx-Az5Da4M Think of how many match cuts there are!
Continuity editing: shot reverse shotShot reverse shot is when a shot goes from shot A, shot B, shot A, shot B etc.It goes continuously back and forth between the 2 shots to show there is a connection between themIt is often used in conversations so you see what both characters are sayingImagine if a conversation was just 1 shot of character A and you didnt see character Bs face at all?
Continuity editing: eye-line matchShot A: character is looking off screenShot B: what character is looking at
Is a following shot that follows what character is looking at, makes cuts smoother the audience expects the cut to happen and is eager to see what happens next/what character sees.
Example, A persons phone rings, she turns and looks in direction of phoneClose up shot of phone ringing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KtVKu9CfDA&feature=relmfu This is eye-line match because of the cards she is looking at.
Her lookingat cards her looking at cards
Continuity editing: cross cuttingTechnique of continuously alternating 2 or more scenes that often happen simultaneously (at same time) but in different locations.
As they cross, pace gradually gets faster and fast and tension builds
Often the parallel scenes will intersect to create a climax.
-2 scenes: a) FBI director (outside house) b) criminal (inside house)
What is unique/different about this scene? How has cross cutting been used different? (What is its intention upon the audience?)
Cross cutting example
Busted! Climax(2 scene collide)A (3pm)B (3pm)A (315pm)B (315pm)A (330pm)B (330pm)A (3:33pm)B (3:33pm)
Continuity editing: insert shotInfilm, aninsertis a shot of part of asceneas filmed from a different angle and/or focal length from themaster shot (original/establishing shot). Inserts cover action already covered in the master shot, but emphasize a different aspect of that action due to the different framing. An insert differs from acutawayas cutaways cover actionnotcovered in the master shot.
ExampleCLOSE-UP of the gunfighter, INSERT of his hand quivering above the holster, TWO SHOT of his friends watching anxiously, INSERT of the clock ticking.
Inserts andcutawayscan both be tricky for directors, as care must be taken to preservecontinuityby keeping the objects in the same relative position as in the main take, and having the lighting the same.
Pacehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6hxOoM0-NJI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZZ60jrw6cg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1JsC1ur2X8TYPE OF PACEEffectsSLOW-to make slow/calm/still-little number of shots/cuts which are long-to make audience calm or bored (perhaps to pay attention to detail or to emphasize emotion)MEDIUM-to make normal and comfortable-average number shots/cuts which are medium time which could show realismFAST-to make intense, exciting and thrilling-lots of shots/cuts which are short-to make audience tense/excited
Which pace for each clip?How is this pace created?Why is this pace created?
Manipulating time through editingEditing can control the time it takes to tell the story or to show a part of the story.Temporal ellipsis shrinking of time. E.g. Shot 1 man gets out of bed in the morning. Shot 2- man has breakfast. Shot 3 man boards train. Shot 4 man arrives at work.Temporal extension extending time. Usually used to dramatise a significant event. Slow motion or a montage of shots showing the same event again and again.
Manipulating time through editingFlash backs used to show the audience significant events from the past which can help to explain a characters views or motivations.Flash forwards foreshadow later events in the story.
Time allocationRemember the audience will not see everything, things are edited in order they get to see what is important.Who/what has most time on screen? Why?Who/what has little time on screen and why?
*link to representation/stereotype*link to placement (shots/angles) where are characters placed in the scene? Are they in the middle of the screen or hidden in a corner or behind other people?
Think of the fast and furious chase scene = who has the most/little time? Why?
Special EffectsB&w often used to show memory or time period
Contrast to altar the lighting (or contrast = very light lights and dark darks sometimes with memories
Colour - to add a colour filter to show a specific mood Example The ring many scenes are very blue-ish, which show sterile/coldness etc.
Animation titles of shows or cartoons
CGI computer generated images (example = avatar, planet of apes, polar express)
Fast forward/slow motion speeding up or slowing down footage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIK4Uf9NhJA (fast) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QrlPmK4B94 (slow)
Ghost trail see multiple actions (overlapped) to show someone drunk or on drugs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5xkFN-pOJc (ghost trail) .. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI3bnkWD0Fg (hallucination when stung by bee at 2:06)
Blur to show un-clarity, or fuzzy memory/flashback (bee sting scene some is blurry when Peeta coming)
Montage editingMontage editing is a series of shots that are not in sequential order, continuous or relate to each other. It is just like pieces of the puzzle, often used in trailers, TV openings (the show credits/opening)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBNnHlqO4cshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DhQHlCaSR_w
Other good videoshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d1japIhKU9I filming techniques
Any technique/rule = search in youtube, you can learn about so many!
Key TermsContinuityContinuity Editing180 degree ruleMatch on actionShot reverse shotEyeline matchCross cutting Insert shotCutawayPaceTimeTransitionsStraight cuttingDissolveWipeFade in/fade outSpecial EffectsCGIB&WBlurFast forward/slow motionMontage Editing
GREENTerms I am confident withAMBERTerms I am ok withREDTerms I am confused about
REVISION HomeworkSet: Tues Oct 22Due: Thur Oct 25
1. Revise the terms ONCE TWICE THREE TIMES (20-30 mins)
Revise by:A) reading over the powerpointB) writing out the key terms and meanings in blue exam bookC) finding evidence/videos and putting on blog (explain how it is that clip)