Getting ready for lambing and kidding

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  • GettingReadyforLambing&Kidding 11/19/11

    1

    SUSANSCHOENIAN(Shynn)Sheep&GoatSpecialistWesternMarylandResearch&EducationCentersschoen@umd.edu www.sheepandgoat.com

    Seventy(70)percentoffetalgrowthisoccurring.

    Mostofthefemalesudderdevelopmentisoccurring.

    Herrumencapacityisdecreasing.

    Sheseatingless.

    NEEDS

    INTAKE

    Amorenutrientdensediet Tocompensatefor

    reducedfeedintake. Tosupportfetalgrowth. Tosupportudder

    developmentdevelopment. Topreventpregnancy

    toxemiaandmilkfever. Toensurebirthofstrong,

    healthybabiesofmoderatesize(weight).

    PoornutritioncancauseAngoradoestoabort(90110d).

    Remember:animalsneedamounts(lb,g)ofnutrients notpercentages.

    Energyisthenutrientmostlikelytobedeficient,butproteincanalsobedeficientinthediet,duetoreducedintake.

    Nutrientrequirementsvaryby Nutrientrequirementsvarybyspecies,breed,size,age,andnumberoffetuses.

    Grainisoftennecessarytomeetincreaseenergyneedsofpregnantfemales.

    Ifalowqualityforageisfed,itmayalsobenecessarytoprovidesupplementalCaand/orprotein. Remember:animalsneedamounts

    (lb,g)ofnutrients notpercentages.

    UNDERFEEDING

    Pregnancytoxemiarisk Smaller,weakerbabies Reducedcolostrum

    OVERFEEDING

    Pregnancytoxemiarisk Morelikelytoprolapse

    theirvaginas.qualityandquantity

    Higherneonatalmortality Reducedmilkyield Reducedwoolproduction

    viafewersecondaryfollicles(intheoffspring).

    g Greaterriskofdystocia

    (difficultbirthing). Toomuchinternalfat Oversizedfetuses

    Expensive!

    Calciumrequirementsvirtuallydoubleduringlatepregnancy,butyouneedtoavoidexcessivecalcium toocalcium,too.

    Milkfeveriscausedbylowbloodcalcium Prepartum

    InadequateintakeofCa Postpartum(dairydoes)

    FailuretomobilizeCareserves

  • GettingReadyforLambing&Kidding 11/19/11

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    POORSOURCES

    Feedstuff %Ca

    Barley 0.06

    Corn 0.02

    GOODSOURCES

    Feedstuff %Ca

    Limestone 34.0

    Dicalciumphosphate 22.0

    Oats, wheat 0.05 Traceminerals 1418

    Drykelp 2.72

    Legumes 1.31.5

    INTERMEDIATESOURCES

    Feedstuff %Ca

    Grasses 0.300.50

    Soybeanmeal 0.280.38

    Oursoilsaredeficientinselenium.

    Duringlategestation,seleniumcrossestheplacentatothefetuses

    Imagesource:InformedFarmers(Can)

    placentatothefetuses.

    Lowlevelsofseleniumcanresultin... Poorreproductive

    performance Retainplacentas Whitemuscledisease

    inlambsandkids

    Freechoicemineralmixesusuallyprovideadequateselenium(butdonotguaranteeadequateintake).

    AddingaseleniumfortifiedAddingaselenium fortifiedmineralmixtothegrainrationwillensureadequateintakeofselenium andotherminerals.

    SeleniumandvitaminEcanbesupplementedorally(gels).

    Onfarmswithahistoryofwhitemuscledisease,seleniuminjections(Rx)maybeadvisable.

    Makesureallewesanddoescaneatatthesametime.

    Separatepregnantewelambsanddoelingsfrommaturefemales.

    Removemalesafterbreedingseason.8 Donotfeedontheground.

    Stresscanpredisposepregnantewesanddoestomanyproblems.

    Minimizestressduringlatepregnancy Missedfeedings Shearing,crutching Moving,handling Mixinggroups Dogs

    Lackofexercisemayincreasethechancesofpregnancytoxemiaandotherproblems.

    Dailyexerciseisrecommendedthroughoutpregnancy.

    Exercisecanbeencouragedbyseparatingfeed,water,andminerals.

  • GettingReadyforLambing&Kidding 11/19/11

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    Vaccinatepregnantfemalesapproximately1month(atleast2weeks)beforetheyareduetolamb/kidlamb/kid. Lambsandkidswill

    acquiretemporary,passiveimmunityviathecolostrum.

    Femalesnevervaccinatedbeforerequiretwoinjections,4weeksapart.

    Ewesanddoessufferatemporarylossofimmunitytostomachwormsaroundthetimeofparturition.

    Iflambingorkiddingoccursinthespring,theeggrisecoincideswiththehypobioticlarvaeresumingtheirlifecycle.

    Traditionalapproach Dewormewesanddoes

    priortoparturition. Useananthelminticthat

    hasefficacyagainsthypobioticlarvae(e g hypobioticlarvae(e.g.ivermectin,SafeGuard)

    Novelapproaches Increaselevelofproteinin

    lategestationration. UsetheFAMACHA

    systemandFivePointChecktodeterminewhichewesanddoesrequiredeworming.

    Infeedormineral Bovatec sheep Rumensin goats Deccox both

    Why? Topreventcoccidiosisinlambsandkids. Reducesheddingof Deccox both gcoccidiaorganismintoenvironment.

    AsanaidtopreventabortionscausedbyToxoplasma gondii.

    ( Coccidiostats, especially Rumensin can be toxic to equines and dogs.

    Why? Topreventabortion.

    Iftheflockhasahistoryofdiagnosedabortions.

    Intheeventofanabortionstormstorm.

    How? Feedchlorotetracycline

    (aureomycin)atarateof80mg/head/dayduringthelast6weeksofgestation.

    Injectoxytetracycline (LA200)attwoweekintervalsduringlategestation[Rx].

    Resultsincleaner,drier,healthierenvironmentforbabies.

    Shornewesarelesslikelytolayontheirlambslayontheirlambs.

    Shornewesaremorelikelytoseekshelterforlambing.

    Shornanimalstakeuplessspaceinthebarnandaroundfeeders.

    Resultsincleanerfleeces.9 But...shornanimalsrequire

    shelterandmorefeed.

  • GettingReadyforLambing&Kidding 11/19/11

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    FACILITIES

    Clean,dry,draftfreebuilding

    D

    SUPPLIES

    Frozencolostrum Esophagealfeedingtube OBsleevesandlubricant Droparea

    Smallpens(jugs) Mixingpens

    Clean,wellrestedpasture Shelter Emergencypens

    Disinfectantfordippingnavels Prolapseharnessorspoon Needlesandsyringes Propyleneglycol Calciumborogluconate Antibiotics BoSe Thermometer More

    DOS

    Increasenutrition(gradually) Feedpregnantewelambs

    anddoelingsseparately

    DONTS

    Overfeed Underfeed Stressfemalesg p y Encouragedailyexercise

    Minimizestress VaccinateforCDT Manageperiparturient

    eggrise Feedacoccidiostat Shearorcrutchfemales Preparefacilities Gather/inventorysupplies

    Stressfemales Introducenewanimals Changegroupings Leavemalesin( Worry

    Thankyouforyourattention.

    Anyquestions?

    SusanSchoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com