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  • CHAPTER 13The Globalization of Infectious Disease pgs 277-278Brian Hayward and Frederic Apiou Global Issues Project

  • What is the Significance of This?The rapid spread of Globalization, especially starting in the 1980s, underscored links between infectious diseases in poor countries and outbreaks of these diseases in rich countries.

    Although perceived initially as a disease limited primarily to homosexuals, HIV/AIDS began to spread to the general population through blood transfusions, intravenous drug usage, and heterosexual practices.

    Diseased populations are vulnerable to contracting other diseases due to compromised immune systems.

  • Human SecurityHuman Security-Focuses on the individual as a primary object of security.

    Spanish Flu-The most lethal plague in history, causing roughly 50 million deaths worldwide

    Global Security-Stresses a common and comprehensive security worldwide.

    3 by 5 anti-AIDS initiative Program initiated by the WHO to provide anti-AIDS drugs to 3 million people in poor countries by the end of 2005

    Globalization, especially cultural globalization profoundly affects behavioral patterns worldwide.

  • Global Travel and CommunicationsBlack Death - Bubonic plague that killed roughly 25 million people throughout Europe

    The Global trade in agricultural products has also escalated the risk of the global transmission of diseases.

    People have migrated to areas that bring them into contact with animals and soils that play a role in the spread of infectious diseases

    Ethnic conflicts, widespread violence, and wars have always contributed to the outbreak of disease and often the spread of infectious disease.

  • Human Security and Infectious DiseaseFactors that has contributed to the globalization of infectious disease are 1. Global travel 2.Modern medical practices and 3. Environmental factors.

    Overuse and misuse of antibiotics contribute to the growing problem of pathogenic natural selection

  • Human Security and Infectious Disease contdGlobally, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) cause 63 percent of all deaths.

    In Africa, HIV/AIDSis the leading cause of the reemergence of tuberculosis.

    Noncommunicable diseases can be considered epidemics.

  • The Concept Of Global Security The concept of global security with its emphasis on military force and war to emphasize the global dimensions of emerging threats and problems and the need to achieve security with others..

    UN Millennium Development Goals: Four of the goals concentrate on health-related issues.

  • Human Security During The 1990s Is Attributed To:The end of the cold war; this ending radically altered the global political and security environment.

    A better understanding of the everyday insecurities; this is experienced by the worlds poor, the vast majority of the worlds population

    The process of Globalization; this ushered an unprecedented changes and uncertainty, thereby influencing a reevaluation of traditional views of security.A Growing problem that assists in the spread of infectious diseases is overuse and misuse of antibiotics.

    One of the ways in which the globalization of infectious diseases threatens human security is that diseases kill far more people than wars do.

    Transmission of diseases from host animals to humans is called zoonosis