good agricultural practice

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good agricultural practice

Text of good agricultural practice


2. Application Practices that: Improve safety & efficacy May be generic or specific to application method, chemical Developed by registrants, growers, applicators, and EPA Many already on labels Must document in Fumigant Management Plan and/or Post Application Summary to show compliance What are GAPs 3. GAP Why? Consumption of fresh produce steadily increasing for health. Increases in the number of produce associated with food borne disease outbreaks in the country. A variety of fruits and vegetables implicated-- domestic and imported Pathogens normally associated with animal origin on fruits and vegetables 4. Why have GAPs? Ensure that all applicators follow the same standards Reduce potential for: bystander & handler exposure to emissions from soil fumigants accidents Improve efficiency of soil fumigation 5. Good Agricultural Practices: Minimize exposure from emissions Increase safety and efficacy of applications May be generic, or specific to a chemical or application method Many on labels as recommendations, more will be mandatory Must be documented in FMPs and/or post- application summaries 6. Big challenges for agriculture ? Improve food security livelihoods Satisfy increasing demands for safe and nutritious food and other products Conserve the natural resource base 7. The million dollar question is How to make agricultural systems in developing countries more sustainable, in a globalizing world where food supply chains are ever more competitive ? 8. Compulsory rules of the GAP Conditions for application of fertilizer near water courses. Crop rotation. Animal density. Capacity and construction of manure storages. Periods when the application of fertilizer is inappropriate. Establishment of fertilization plans. Rate and uniformity of spreading fertilizer and livestock manure. Construction of shallow dug wells for drinking water. Use of plant protection products. 9. 1. Conditions for application of fertilizer near water courses When catchment area 10 km2, width of the protective strip at streams and ditches should be: 1 m - when stream side slope is 5o; 2.5 m - when stream side slope is 5-10o; >5 m - when stream side slope is >10o. Water protection strip Compulsory rule 10. In farms, having more than 15 ha of agricultural land, 50% area should be covered by winter crops; In hilly areas erosion preventive measures should be implemented: On slopes 5 perennial grass have to cover 35-40% of the total crop rotation area; On slopes 5-7 - perennial grasses have to cover at least 50% of the total crop rotation area; On slopes 7-10 - the area of perennial grasses has to cover at least 65-80%; When slope is 10-15 only perennial grasses have to be planted. 2. GREENCOVERANDCROP ROTATION Compulsory rule 11. Animal density should not exceed 1.7 animal units per hectare of agricultural land; When animal density is higher, one should procure additional land or to sell excess of manure to other farm, where animal density is less than the norm established. 3. ANIMAL DENSITY Compulsory rule AU is equal to 100 kg of N ex storage in manure per year including N left on pasture during grazing period 12. Manure storages should be constructed in the farms keeping more than 10 animal units, except farms keeping animals on deep litter; To establish manure storages on farms keeping from 10 to 300 AU within 8-year period after entering the EU; All the farms with more than 300 AU should establish manure storages within 4-year period after entering the EU Manures storage should be of such size that could contain livestock, horse and sheep manure of 6 month, whereas pigs and poultry 8 month. 4. CAPACITY AND CONSTRUCTIONOF MANURE STORAGES Compulsory rule 13. 5. PERIODSWHENTHEAPPLICATIONOF FERTILIZERIS INAPPROPRIATE Manure and slurry should be spread during warm season: from 15 March to 1 December. In some cases, when there is no snow and the soil is not frozen, it is allowed to spread manure in cold season. Compulsory rule 14. 6. Establishment of fertilization plans All farms having more than 150 ha of agricultural land should establish fertilization plans for all crop fields. Fertilization plan should take into account: soil type, soil conditions, slope, climate, crop rotation, desirable yield, nutrient storage in soil, soil pH, requirements of special land use conditions. Records on fertiliser use should be kept in farm record book. Compulsory rule 15. The amount of livestock manure applied each year, including manure left on fields after grazing, should not exceed the equivalent of 170 kg of nitrogen per hectare of utilised agricultural area; Solid manure should be incorporated into the soil within 6 hours after application. 7. RATE AND UNIFORMITYOF SPREADING FERTILIZER AND LIVESTOCK MANURE Compulsory rule 16. Dug well should be established in such a way that surface water or snow would not get into it; 70-80cm around the well 1.5 m depth clay layer should be temped down adding 20 cm gravel layer above. Should not be any farm buildings, field toilets, slurry pits, manure piles, storages of fertiliser, pesticides and oil products as well as greenhouses and intensively fertilised kitchen gardens upstream ground water flow to the well; Width of a dug well protective zone from living house 7m, outhouse or greenhouse 10m, barn and manure storage 25m. Dug well protective zone should be covered by grass. 8. Constructionof shallowdug wells Compulsory rule 17. Only pesticides that are registered is allowed to be use. 9. Use of plant protection products Compulsory rule 18. Developments in Agriculture Sector Demand by consumers, retailers, processors -Food safety, quality, nutrition -Environmental impact of agriculture Supply by farmers who adopt practices -Improve livelihoods Support by governments and institutions -Sustainable agriculture policies -Research, extension, education, credit, infrastructure 19. Global Principles of GAP Form 11 components of agri. Practices. Identify hazards to be avoided. Identify outcomes to be promoted = Provide a basis for the development of codes of practice for individual production systems. 20. The 11 components Soil Water Crop and fodder production Crop protection Animal feed and livestock production Animal health Animal welfare Harvest and on-farm processing and storage Energy and waste management Human welfare, health and safety Wildlife and landscape 21. Lessons learnt - Strategy Be strategic: some crops have more impacts and potential than others. Focus on improvement: better, not best agricultural practices; encourage innovation, not compliance. Focus on the most serious impacts: soil erosion, effluents, habitat conversion. 8-10 activites. cause most environmental impacts Be open: not enough effort made to collect/adapt lessons from around the world 22. Where could a GAP approach be most useful ? From the top: when private company wants to improve its GAP standards in a meaningful way. From the bottom: help farmer groups integrate markets (technical advice on practices and managerial advice on commercialization) Support level: help interested govt. understand implications, define policies and build capacity. 23. Conclusion : key words ! GAP : Old wine in new bottles ? Or working better together? Its about INTEGRATION Win-win situations for consumers, markets and farmers. Its about NEGOTIATION Ultimately, a matter of policy choice for govts, minimizing trade-offs. Its about SELECTION Practical, flexible approaches in GAP Workshop Its about IMPLEMEN TATION 24. GAPs Activity 24 25. GAPs Activity 25 26. GAPs Activity 26 27. GAPs Activity 27 28. GAPs Activity 28 29. GAPs Activity 29 30. GAPs Activity 30 31. GAPs Activity 31 32. GAPs Activity 32 33. GAPs Activity 33 34. GAPs Activity 34 35. GAPs Activity 35 36. Simple assumption Good production practices at farm level can make a huge difference..!