Jewish, Early Christian, and Byzantine Art slide show. AP Art History
- 1.33 -1453 Art of Late Antiquity
2. JudaicArt 245 CE Messiah :in the Hebrew Bible, an anointed king who will lead the Jews back to the land of Israel and establish justice in the world Yahweh : One of the Hebrews name for God. Covenant: a solemn agreement that is binding for all parties Jewish History: Originated 2000 years before the common era with a divine covenant between god of the ancient Israelites and Abraham TheTorah holds the OldTestament They await the coming of the Messiah, The anointed one Romans hated all monotheistic religions: According to Josephus they literally starved all the Jews in Judea by disallowing them to buy food. This horror caused then to eat garbage, shoes and belts, and hate the Romans. The Romans crucified Christ. 3. The Crossing of the Red Sea, from Dura-Europos, 200 CE 4. Samuel Anoints David, detail of the Dura Europos Synagogue, c 245-256 5. Moses GivingWater to theTwelve Tribes, Detail from the west wall. 6. Catacombs and Funerary Art Christian Art: 2nd and 3rd Century Bible from the Greek Biblos meaning book. Catacombs from the Latin ad catacumbas, meaning in the hollows Christian history: Adopted the OldTestament from Judaism Completed the NewTestament during the fourth century Many Christians were poor and relished the idea of an afterlife where they were judged equally Theodosius officially established Christianity as the official religion of Rome at the end of the fourth century. Romans disallowed Christianity Hated their alien beliefs Christ made salvation and redemption possible Celebrated the Eucharist Persecuted Christians and Jews from 305 -312 7. Christ as the Good Shepherd, catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, 2nd and 3rd Century 8. In situ 9. Christian Community House , Dura Europos, Syria, c 240-256 10. Sarcophagus with philosopher, orant andOld and NewTestament scenes, Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome, c.270 11. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, from Rome, Italy, c 359 12. In situ 13. After Constantine believed his power to overtake Maxentius was due the power he gained from Christ: The new buildings had to meet the requirements of Christian liturgy Provide a suitably monumental setting Accommodate the rapidly growing number of worshippers Leading to: Elaborate basilicas Memorials Mausoleums 14. Architrave 15. transepts Gable Roof altar Atrium Narthex N A V E 4 Aisles Clerestory Windows Apse Architrave 16. Interior of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c 425-426 17. Syncretistic 18. Byzantine art emerged as identifiable and distinctive. 19. Exterior of San Vital, Ravenna, 540-547 20. Off-axis placement of the Narthex Domed Octagon over the ambulatory apse transepts Exedrae columns Axial Eight large piers 21. Justinian, Bishop Maximianus and attendants, mosaic from the north wall of the apse, SanVitale, Ravenna, Italy, c.547 22. Theodora and attendants, mosaic, SanVitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 547 23. 270 X 240 feet Dome is 108 feet in diameter Domes crown rises 180 feet from the ground First dome collapsed in 558 Its replacement required repair in the 9th and 14th centuries Rivals architectural wonders of the world: Pantheon, the Baths of Caracalla, and the Basilica of Constantine. Turned into an Islamic Mosque by the Ottoman Empire 24. Exedra Apse Dome of Pendentives Piers Forty windows Buttresses Half Domes 25. Piers Dome 26. Buttresses Nave reserved for the Clergy, Congregates were separated by sex and confined to the shadows of the aisles and galleries Columns in the nave 27. Main dome with clerestory windows, half dome helping with the stability and thrust of the large central dome, and smaller half domes supporting columned exedrae . 28. Procopius, A Golden chain of Heaven. 29. Ascension of Christ, Folio 13 verso of the Rabbula Gospels from Zagba,Syria. 586 30. Iconoclasts destroyed many of the images as iconophiles continued to create them. Few Byzantine survive between 500-726 CE In 843 iconoclasm was repealed and images were reinstated, causing a burst of creative power. Icons violate the 2nd commandment that the Lord dictated to Moses, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them. 31. END OF ICONOCLASM 32. Virgin Mary (Theotokos) and Child enthroned, apse mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 867 33. Christ enthroned with saints (HarbavilleTriptych), c. 950 34. Interior of the Katholikon (looking at the dome) Hosios, Loukas, Greece, early first quarter of 11th Century 35. What architectural design do you see? 36. Crucifixion, mosaic in the Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece, c. 1090-1100 37. Three events of fateful significance began to end for Byzantium. 1.TheTurks conquered most of Anatolia 2.The Byzantine Christian Orthodox church broke away from the Roman Church 3.Crusaders came to fight for the cross against the Saracens (Muslims) 38. Three 39. Russia considered itself the Third Rome and condemned the godlessTurks who destroyed Constantinople. Old Rome, New Rome orThird Rome were a continuum that spanned two and half millennia when artists and architects produced the most significant works of art history.