Latin American Development

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1. The Development of Latin America Unit IV: 1750-1914 2.

  • Wars of Independence By 1825 Most of Latin America was free from colonial rule.
    • A)Inspired by Enlightenment ideals, American Revolution and French Revolution
    • B)Led by Creoles who resented Peninsulares Bolivar, San Martin, Hidalgo
    • C)Many grievances of slaves, Indians, mestizos, and mulattoes intensified desirefor greater freedom from Spanish rule

3.

  • II. Period of Consolidation1825-1850
    • A) Political Instability
        • 1. Debates over central government and federalists
        • 2. Clashes between liberals and conservatives
        • 3._________________________ and lack of democratic traditions

4.

    • B) Liberals dominated most governments Supported free trade and Federal government but too idealistic and led to challenges.
        • 1.____________ Parliamentary institutions, religiousfreedom 1820s-1830s
        • 2.____________ Protect church and upper class
        • 1830s-1870s
        • 3.__________________ very influential due to strongpower base, organizational skills and support fromlandlords who wanted protection from peasant unrest.However, they did suffer from factional fighting, coupsand revolts.Bolivia had 60, Venezuela 52.

5. The Roman Catholic Church has powerful influence throughout Latin America 6.

        • 1. Mexico : Santa Anna 1833-1855 Liberal turned Authoritarian
          • A. Liberal Constitution of 1836
          • B. Strong ties to military
          • C. Santa Anna was Emperor of one of the largest empire in history,stretching from southern Mexico through Texas, all of what isnow the US southwest, California and some of Oregon, a ratherlarge parcel of territory.
          • D. Lost Texas during Texas Revolution, Lost Mexican-AmericanWar to U.S.
          • E. Used influence to keep power and do good for himself
        • 2. Argentina :Juan Manuel de Rosas 1829-1852 Conservative Authoritarian
          • A. Protected and supported_________________________
          • B.Created Mazorca police force
          • C.Used power for personal well-being
          • D.United Argentina and brought them into world market
          • E.Used power for own personal well-being ousted in1852

CASE STUDY Santa Anna Video Clip 7. Fun Fact! 8.

  • III.Latin American Progress:1850
    • A.Established Key Institutions
        • 1. Legal codes written based on Spanish precedent
        • 2. Developed infrastructure:Schools opened, public works developed
        • 3. Abolition of slavery and wider voting rights
  • B.Stability in Foreign Affairs:
        • 1. Free from major strife between nations- Military leaders internal control distracted foreign exploits.
        • 2. _________________influence:Mexico lost territory with Texas independence and Mexican-American War, Semi-independent Cuba created after Spanish American War, Independent Panama created due to U.S. interest in controlling canal.
        • 3. Britain created Uruguay in 1820s to buffer Argentina and Brazil

9.

        • 1. Mexico: Benito Juarez 1855-1872 Liberal
          • Inspired by England, France, and United States-
          • liberal reforms
          • Confiscated land from the church, and developed a
          • secular system of education and economy.
          • Established private property to spur modern
          • independent farming- Failed due to purchase of land
          • by rich, leading to increased landlessness.
        • 2. Argentina: Domingo Faustino Sarmiento 1865-1874 Liberal
          • A.Tried to establish close ties to Britain
          • B.Increased immigration of Europeans into Argentina
          • C.Stressed education, urged urbanization, and
          • built infrastructure

CASE STUDY 10.

        • IV. Caudillo Rule (Strong Man):1870s-1900s
          • A._______________________ were developed:Liberal yetAuthoritarian
          • 1. Wanted economic development and less constrainedtrade limited government intervention in the economy
          • 2. Held elections but restricted voting rights and instilledstrict_____________________
          • 3. Supported by small urban middle class and largelandowners, miners, and export merchants.

During the rule of the Caudillo dictators, the Latin American people became forced into hard conditions, peasants became tied to the land and forced to work long hours, and middle class people virtually had no rights over their land. The ruling class consisted of the Caudillos, landowners and other social elites who controlled political life.They put down social uprisings and took away power from the Catholic Church. Oligarchic Democracies Law and order 11.

    • B)Commercial Expansion and Development:
        • 1.Latin American economies led by _________:Central AmericahadBananas and coffee, Cuba had tobacco and sugar, Brazil had rubber andcoffee, copper and silver from Mexico, wool, wheat, and beef fromArgentina and copper from Chile.
        • 2.Strong demand for _________ and ________ led to imports of largequantities of foreign manufactures risky due to unsteady world marketprices
        • 3.Foreign investors increased: U.S, British, French invested in mining,railroads, utilities, and banking- influenced nations

exports cash crops minerals 12.

          • 1.Mexico:Porfirio Diaz 1876-1911:Liberal Positivist
          • A.Created a strong centralized government- political rivals were arrested
          • B.Built infrastructure and_____________________ nation
          • C.Promoted foreign investments in mining, transportation,and other sectors mostly United States

industrialized immigration

        • 2. Argentina: Julio Roca 1880-1916:Liberal Positivist
          • A. Stabilized nation and economy used harshmethods and limited opposition