a work for Applied Linguistics class.
- 1.Sources of variation in language learning (Rebecca L. Oxford)Focus on Language Learner: Motivation, Styles and Strategies(Andrew D. Cohen and Zoltn Drnyei) Students : Natalia Lopez Marlen Rojas Date : April 17th, 2008 Professor : Katica Oblinobic
2. Sources of variation in language learning
- Why do some ESL students learn much more quickly than others ?
Large Culture: I/CandTOA affect language learning Small culture:Demagogic Factors: Stylistic Factors: Brain, Learning styles, Field Dependence (FD) Field Independence (FI)Personality types. Cognitive and Affective factors: Second v/s Foreign Language: SL environment, FL environment,Hybrid environment. Individual Studentscharacteristics Contextual Sources (Background) 3.
- Influences ethnic, national or
- international interaction with the
- Different beliefs and values can also limit language achievement and goals.Learner s differences v/s teacher s differences (troubles) , but they can be modified through activities.
- Saleh (1997)> Individualism/collectivism (I/C)andCultural Tolerance of ambiguity (TOA), affect language learning.
Large Culture : 4.
- Classroom, street and self access to learning are the main factors which also affect learning process.
- Teachers treatment can be: Autocratic,
- Democratic or Laissez-faire (let it be).
- The 2nd modelis the one that students
In this context: Which are the most common stumbling blocks for second language learners? Small culture: 5.
- Related to different environments.
- SL environment :Natural inputs of the target language
- FL environment: Target language is not the main mean of communication eg. English learning in Japan.
- Hybrid environment :ESL/EFL environment, eg. Puerto Rico
Second v/s Foreign Language : 6.
- Styles, Approach to Learning or problem-solving as Brain Hemisphericity, learning styles and personality.
- Brain:Activity, Damage, Gender Differences.
- Left side: Logical/VerbalRight side:Emotional/Creative
- Learning styles and academic choices are related to hemisphericity of the brain.
- Learning styles:How people learn from different types of interactions.
- Sensory Preferences: Visual/Auditory/Kinesthetic/Tactile.
Stylistic Factors: 7.
- Field Dependence (FD)Rely on external points of reference (context). Social language skins.
- Field Independence(FI) Rely on internal points of reference ( Analytic language learning).
- Personality types:extroverted/introverted, sensing/intuition,thinking/feeling, judging/perceiving .
- What side of the brain do you think was more developed in the case of Mozart, Picasso and Shakespeare?
The Brain Game 8.
- Includes motivacin, self-referencial
- judgements, anxiety and language
What are the main motivations to learn a new language?
- Gender, Age, Home language and Foreign travel experience.
- *Differences between males and females.
- *The critical period (before puberty)
- *Development of language skills
Cognitive and Affective factors : Demographic Factors: 9. Focus on the language learner:Motivation ,StylesandStrategies 10. Focus on the language learner:Motivation ,StylesandStrategies
- Learner Characteristics: Success rely on different factors such as Intensity of a course, abilities, methodologies andcharacteristics of a teacher , qualities of the learners material, the language practice and of coursefeatures of the students , some of them which are beyond the teachers controland othersthat actuallycan be motivated.
Learners who are successful may indeed be highly motivated, do you think they became successful because of their motivation? 11. Focus on the language learner:Motivation ,StylesandStrategies Learner Characteristics Characteristics Outsidethe teacherscontrolLanguage Aptitude Age and Gender Motivation The Social Nature of L2 Motivation Motivation as a Dynamic ProcessMotives to Learn a L2 Executive motivation Motivating Larners Learning style Learning strategies learning strategies use strategies Self-motivating strategies Definition Communication strategies Cognitive, Meta-cognitive, Affective and social Strategies Self- motivating Strategies Pedagogical Implications:the Intersection of Motivation,Styles and Strategies Skill Areas & 12. Characteristics Outside the teacherscontrol :
- Learning effectiveness: Type of learning and the amount of energyto acquire new language information.
- Teachers can compensate this factor with motivation and the use of proper strategies.
- Motivation : Employing certain methods it is possible to change learners motivation in a positive direction.
- The Social Nature of L2 Motivation : Learning a new language involves not only adoption of new grammar or vocabulary, but entails learning an entire new culture and even behaviour.
To increase effectiveness of instruction 13.
- Integrative Orientation, Instrumental Orientation,The Integrative Motive( Integrativeness ,Attitudes, Motivation)
- 1.-Percives quality of the learning experience .
- 2.- Autonomy (self determination)
- 3.- Motivational retrospection : To look back and evaluate
Motivation as a Dynamic Process (Motivating Learners)
- Creating the basic motivational conditions
- Generating initial student motivation
- Maintaining and protecting motivation
- Encouraging positive retrospective self evaluation
14. Learning Styles
- Teachers can modify the learning task to get best results and to incorporate differents approaches (Style-stretching)
- Being Visual, auditory or hand-on
- Being more extroverted versus introverted
- Being more abstract and intuitive versus more concrete and thinking in step-by-step sequence.
- Being more global versus more particular
- Being more synthesizing versus being more analytic
Juanito is in English class but he was drawing while the teacher spoke. However he understood the whole class.Why? 15. Learning strategies
- Language learning strategies
- Self-motivating strategies
16. Communication strategies (Dnyei ) Appeal for help Asking for repetition Asking for clarification Asking for confirmation Expressing non-understanding Interpretive summary Interactional Use of fillees and other hesitation advices Stalling or time-gainingCircumlocution Approximation Word coinage Use of non-linguistic means Literal translation Foreignizing Code switching Achievement or compensatory Message abandonment Topic avoidance Avoidance or reduction Communication strategies 17. Cognitive, Meta-cognitive, Affective and social Strategies * Cognitive, Metacognitive, Affective, Social Strategies. Classifying Strategies According to Skill Areas Related to reading habits in the target language Basic reading strategies When encountering unknown words and structures Reading Strategies to increase exposure to the new language Strategies to become more familiar with the sounds in the new language Strategies for better understanding the new language in conversation When listening in L2 language If some or most of what someone says in the language is not understood Listening Classifying Strategies According to Skill Areas 18. In order to enhance language learning and use To work directly in the target language as much as possible Strategic use of traslation To memorize new words In order to review vocabulary In order to recall vocabulary As a way of making use of new vocabulary Vocabulary estrategy Basic writing strategies While writing an essay Once a draft essay has been written Writing In order to practise for speking In order to engage in conversations Incapacity to think of a word or expression Speaking 19. Self- motivating Strategies
- Commitment control strategies.
- Meta-cognitive control strategies
- Satiation control strategies
- Emotion control strategies
- Environmental control strategies
Pedagogical Implications: the Intersection of Motivation, Styles and Strategies Steps for Style and Strategies- based Instruction Which styles learners favour? Provide guide exercises to practice Encourage students to find their own strategies Students share about their own techniques 20. MBTI TEST