Locomotion System

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  • 1. By:Phoebe D. PangilinanClaire Jan Mariel ParamioSean SantosMarielle TamboleroRafaela Villanueva

2. the act, fact, ability, or power of moving A musculoskeletal system (also known asthe locomotor system) is an organ system thatgives animals (including humans) the ability to moveusing the muscular and skeletal systems. provides form, support, stability, and movement to thebody. 3. Skeletal SystemMuscular System 4. provides the shape and form for our bodies in additionto supporting, protecting, allowing bodilymovement, producing blood for the body, and storingminerals. Humans are born with about 300 to 350 bones;however, many bones fuse together between birthand maturity. As a result an averageadult skeleton consists of 206 bones. 5. SkeletonJointsBone Tissue 6. From Greek, skeletos = "dried-body", "mummy consists of both fused and individual bonessupported and supplemented by ligaments,tendons, muscles and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which supportsorgans, anchors muscles, and protects organs suchas the brain, lungs and heart. 7. Exoskeletons are external, and are found inmany invertebrates; they enclose and protect the softtissues and organs of the body. Endoskeletons is the internal support structure ofan animal, composed of mineralized tissue and aretypical of many vertebrates. 8. Axial SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton 9. The axial skeleton transmits the weight from theupper extremities down to the lower extremitiesat the hip joints responsible for the upright position of thehuman body. The axial skeleton (80 bones) is formed by the vertebral column (26) the rib cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum) the skull (22 bones and 7 associated bones). 10. Functions: to make locomotion possible and toprotect the major organs oflocomotion, digestion, excretion, andreproduction. The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) isformed by the shoulder girdles (4) the upper limbs (60) the pelvic girdle (2) the lower limbs (60). 11. A joint is the location at which two ormore bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and providemechanical support, and are classified structurallyand functionally. 12. Movable joints: Ball-and-socket -distal bone is capable of motion around anindefinite number of axes Hinge joint -the articular surfaces are molded to each other insuch a manner as to permit motion only in backward and forwardmotion Pivot joint-allows for rotation, which can be external (forexample when rotating an arm outward), or internal (as in rotatingan arm inward). Gliding joint- under physiological conditions, allows only glidingmovement. Immovable joints: Suture joint- a type of fibrous joint which only occurs in the skull(or "cranium") 13. is the major structural and supportive connective tissue of thebody. Osseous tissue forms the rigid part of the bone organs thatmake up the skeletal system. Two types: Compact bone-facilitates bones main functions: to supportthe whole body, protect organs, provide levers formovement, and store and release chemical elements, mainlycalcium. Spongy bone-makes up most of the volume of the bone. Itcontains bone marrow which is a flexible tissue found in theinterior of bones 14. Nervous system Bones provide calcium that is essential for the proper functioningof the nervous system. The skull protects the brain from injury. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord from injury. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord from injury. The brain regulates the position of bones by controlling muscles. Muscular System To help the body move freely, the skeletal system works veryclosely with the muscular system, which contains all the musclesin the body. Each individual muscle in the body is connected toone or more parts of the skeletal systemDigestive System During the digestion of proteins, bones release Calcium which is an essential element for the strength of bones. 15. www.dls.ym.edu.tw ehow.com innerbody.com biology4kids.com fitstep.com wordpress.com projectskeletal.tripod.com blog.dearbornschools.org en.wikipedia.org 16. is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintainsposture, and circulates blood throughout the body. Muscle cells, called fibers, move by lengthening andcontracting, a process that generates much of the bodyheat needed for survival. 17. Skeletal muscles Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by dense, fibrous connectivetissue called tendons. Exert balanced tension to hold bones in place to maintain the bodysposition, or posture. There are nearly 650 skeletal muscles in the human body Cardiac muscle Cardiac, or heart, muscle is striated, but its action is beyond consciouscontrol. When the skeletal muscles are exercised, they send signals to the heartvia nerve cells to provide more oxygen Smooth or visceral muscles found in blood vessels and organs including the intestines, stomach andurinary tract, are involuntary They respond to demands for increased oxygen from the skeletal 18. Tendons are tough bands of fibrous connectivetissue that usually connect muscle to bone Ligaments refer to fibrous tissue that connectbones to other bones. Example : head andneck, wrist, thorax, pelvis, knee 19. The Skeletal System Most of the muscular system exists for the exclusive purpose ofinteracting with the skeletal system. Muscles move bones in relationshipto each other whenever you move your legs or arms. Smaller musclesmove your jaws and fingers. The Nervous System The nervous system can be viewed as complex information-possessingsystems whose input is the senses and whose output is the muscles. The Circulatory System The circulatory system brings nutrients to the muscles and takes awaywastes. The circulatory system also carries hormones that regulatemuscular activity. The pump for the circulatory system is the heart--amuscle. 20. The Digestive System The muscles of the jaw masticate food, and then muscles along theesophagus move food from the mouth to the stomach. Muscles along theintestines move digesting food along, and muscles control sphincters thatisolate the sections of the digestive system. The Respiratory System The main interaction between the muscular system and the respiratorysystem is the diaphragm: a large, flat muscle that separates the lungsfrom the intestines. It is the movement of the diaphragm that causes thelungs to inflate and deflate. The Immune System The muscular system interacts with the immune system via the lymphsystem. The lymph vessels run through the muscles, and the regularaction of the muscles pumps lymph through the lymph vessels. Thelymph system does not have a pump like the circulatory system does. 21. Flexors Flexors bend at the joint, decreasing the interior angle of the joint.Bicep, is a flexor of the elbow joint, bringing the fist towards the shoulder. Extendors Extensors unbend at the joint, increasing the interior angle. The tricep, isan extensor of the elbow joint, taking the fist farther away from theshoulder. Abductors (link) Abductors take away from the body, like lifting the arm to the side. Abd-means to take away. Spreading out your fingers uses abductors, becauseyou are taking away your fingers from an imaginary line running downyour arm Adductors (link) Adductors move toward the body. By lowing an arm raised to the side, ormoving your fingers together while keeping them straight, your musclesare adducting. 22. livestrong.com wix.com art.com timeshealth.blogspot.com solomonsseal.wordpress.com breg.com en.wikipedia.org