Logical Laws and Fallacies

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Logical Law and Fallacies Spencer Field Fall 2014


Law of Non-Contradction A can not be A and the opposite of A in the same time, in the same place and in the same sense.

Fallacy of Composition (part to whole) If true about on part of X then true about all parts of X

The branch is rotting on the tree so the whole tree is rotting.

Fallacy of DivisionMove from whole to partSince the budget is balanced all parts of the budget are balanced.

Fallacy of the Slippery SlopeA causes B. B causes C. C causes the end of the world.Fallacy of the Slippery SlopeIf we paint Christmas trees purple, then there will be less green Christmas trees. If there are less green Christmas trees, we will diminish the Christmas spirit. Diminishing the Christmas spirit will lead to fewer sales at Christmas. Fewer sales at Christmas means less tax money collected. By decreasing taxes, government revenue is diminished! Diminishing government revenue will force our national defense to be cut! Cutting national defense will lead to a decline in our military power! A decline in military power will lead to the United States resigning as the worlds superpower! The elimination of a superpower will lead to international instability! Instability will lead to nuclear war. Nuclear war will create a world-wide Armageddon!! And a world-wide Armageddon will lead to the end of the world as we know it!!! ~ Kathleen KnudsenHasty GeneralizationNot using qualifications.Overstating

You are all guys. Everyone is so nice. All Republicans are pro-life.Circular ReasoningCause causes the cause I win Monopoly because I am good at it. I am good at it because I win monopoly.Fallacy of EquivocationChange argument in the middle of an argument.Fallacy of EquivocationAff: Are you keeping OASDI. Neg: No.Aff: So OASDI is going to be cut. Neg: No. Fallacy of Post Hoc Ergo Propter HocB happened because of A when there is no connectionI stubbed my toe because I had chicken for dinner.

Fallacy of Post Hoc Ergo Propter HocTaken too far. The mayor cut the ribbon to the new town hall with the scissors. False DilemmaTurning into an either or situationYou are either eating lemons or limes.

I either go to college and get debt or I do not go to college and do not acquire debt.

Tertium QuidPutting in a maybe where there is none.Do I have to pay taxes? Maybe.

Are you alive? Maybe.

AD Homin

Attack of the man and not the argumentYou are wrong because your tie does not match your shoes. You are wrong because you have bad gradesNon SequiturLatin for I do not followThey have a big house so they must be rich.

He dresses nicely, He must be smart.

Straw ManSetting up a false argument and attacking it.Professor Windell does not want to invest federal tax dollars into the solar energy project. I simply cannot understand why he wants to turn our country into a desert wasteland. Any professor who wants to do that is not qualified to teach and thus should not be able to teach. Guilt by AssociationWrong because connection with othersYou are guilty of stealing this car because you are friends with the person who did it. Ad IgnorantiamNot true because we do not know that is false Prove it.

This is the best trading card because you do not know of a better one.

Argument from Final ConsequencesGood end outweighs way we get there. (Deontological).False AnalogyAnalogy works which means the plan will too. The national debt is like a rock dragging the American economy down to the ocean floor. Thus, to fix the national debt all we need are some pic axes. Appeal to People = Everyone else is doing itPity = Im just a kid.Tradition = We have always done it this way.Ignorance = Do you know a better way?Authority = I am your boss so my plan is right. Genetic Fallacy, Bulverism Designed to do something thus cannot do something else. Social Security cards were not designed to be a means of government issued identification thus they cannot beFalse Continuum

There is no defined line or the line is gray so they are the same thing.

The government does has some responsibility to protect its citizens from terrorist attacks and that comes at the cost of privacy. There is not a defined line between searching through garbage and tapping every Americans phone line.


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