This file provides English teachers with useful methods for their classes and also for the assessment of them.
<ul><li> 1. METHODOLOGY </li></ul>
<p> 2. Basic principles of language learning:1- Second language learning is a developmental process 2- Language learning is an active process.A- Psycho-motor activityB- Language processing activity3- Language learning is a decision-making process. 4- Language learning is not just a matterof linguistic knowledge. 3. 5- Language learning is not the learners first experience with language.6- Learning is an emotional experience. 7- Language learning is to a large extend incidental.8- Language learning is not systematic. 4. Three model lessons are proposed:Model 1Strip cartoon with bubbles blanked out. Bubble texts on a separate sheet of paper.Recorded conversation. 5. Model 2Two different dialogues and a letter with complementaryinformation. Cross-groupingFeedback worksheet. Model 3Dialogue cut into trips.Recorded conversationReconstruction of the dialogue. Make a new dialogue with different information. 6. ANALYSIS Gaps: Learning demands thinking. Gaps create that demand. There are many types of gaps.Information gaps Media gaps.Reasoning gaps.Memory gaps.Jigsaw gaps. Opinion gaps.Certainty gaps. 7. Variety: It is the spice of learning.Variety of mediumVariety of classroom organization. Variety of learner roles.Variety of exercise, activity or task.Variety of topicVariety of focus: fluency,discourse, structure, pronunciation, etc. 8. Prediction: It is a matter of using an existing knowledge of a pattern or system in order to anticipate what is likely in a novel situation. It iscentral to language use and language learning. Pedagogic advantages: - It builds learner confidence.- To discover where the gaps of information are - It activates the learners mind andprepares it for learning- It gives students an ego investment. 9. Enjoyment: It is the simplest way toengage students.An integrated methodology: using a range of skills to let a great variety of activitiesCoherence: To have clear where the lesson is going.Preparation: Teacher planningof every part of the lesson 10. Involvement: Learners need to be involvedcognitively and emotionally as wellA- Do not ask difficult questions that may frustrate students B- Wait for their answers.Creativity: Language is dynamic. Activities should allow different possible answers Atmosphere: The cultivation of acooperative social climate withinthe classroom is very important. 11. EVALUATION 12. ESP English for Specific PurposeBecause they study english for aspecific purpose, students want tosee a return on their investment oftime and money.This accountability has produced a demand for more and better evaluationprocedures 13. There are two levels ofevaluation1- Learner assessment 2 - Course evaluation 14. 1- Learner assessment In ESP there are three basic types ofassessment:A Placement tests: The aim of the placement test is to determine the learners state of knowledge before the ESP course begins. Placement test should show not only whatthe learner lacks but also what potential forlearning can be exploited. 15. B- Achievement tests:This tests tell teachers how well students arekeeping up with the syllabus. It is based on a particular text book so studentsare familiar with the content of the test.Teachers should test what they assumestudents have learnt (this is not necessarily the same as what they have taught). This tests should measure anly what they are intended to test ANDNOTHING ELSE. They should be VALID! 16. C- Proficiency tests: These assess whether or not the student can copewith the demands of a particular situation, e.g. astudy at university. They are not based on aparticular text book, therefore students might have some difficulties in solving them.Examples of proficiency tests: PET / CAE / FCE. They are CRITERION REFFERENCED tests. Learners are assessed according to how far the test matches a particular parameter. Theres no pass/fail distinction, but rather a scale of degrees ofproficiency in the task. 17. These different types of test do not necessarily vary in terms of content, theydiffer in terms of their initial function. The same test may be used for more than one purpose, for example, the three of them may be used as aDIAGNOSTIC TEST A test to determine areas of weakness aparticular learner might have. 18. CONCLUSION We need to see test results less as an end in themselves and more as the starting point for genuine negotiation and interaction between students andteachers and studentes themselves.Evaluation can fulfil two functions: ASSESSMENT &FEEDBACK. The key to develop a positive attitude to tests lies in recognising and capitalisin on theirfeedback function and playing down the fearful attitudes that are a result of viewing tests as exclusively determiners of grades. 19. 2- Course evaluation Since ESP exists to satisfy a particulareducational need, evaluation helps to show how well these needs are fulfilled.There are 4 main aspects of ESP course evaluation to be considered: 1- What should be evaluated? 2- How can ESP courses be evaluated? 3- Who should be involved in evaluation? 4- When and how often should evaluation take place? 20. 1- What should be evaluated?EVERYTHING OF IMPORTANCE!! Two important constraints:A- Teachers ability to collect information B- Teachers ability to do something about the information she/he collects.The overall aim of an ESP course is to meet two main needs of the learners: their needs as language LEARNERS and as language USERS.If one of those needs are not being met, teachers must identify the source of the problem and do something about it. 21. 2-How can ESP courses be evaluated?-Using test results-Questionnaires-Discussions-Interviews-Informal means such as casual chats.INFORMATION MUST BE COLLECTED, IF TOO LONGSUMMARISED AND THEN INCLUDED IN A DETAILED COURSE EVALUATION REPORT AS A BASISFOR FURTHER DECISION-MAKE. 22. 3- Who should be involved inthe evaluation?The ESP teachers, learners and course sponsors.WHO YOU ASKE MAY AFFECT WHAT YOU FIND OUT. THUS, EVALUATION PROCEDURES SHOULD BE SEEN AS A PRIMARY CONSIDERATION AND CARE SHOULD ALWAYS TAKE PLACE. 23. 4- When and how often should evaluation take place? Theres undoubted danger in doing course evaluation too frequently. However, the dangersin not doing course evaluation often is equal orgreater. The frequency will depend on the characteristics of the individual teaching situation.The most important times are: in the firstweek of the course, at regular intervals, forexample every half term, at the end of thecourse and if possible after the coursewhere students can judge how well thecourse prepared them to be where they arenow. 24. A GENERAL WORD OF CAUTION!!! 1. Evaluation can be time consuming, complex and frustrating.2. Identified problems might not have an obvious solution3. Feedback from some students maycontradict feedback from others. 4. Students might not be enough sincere. Criticising a course might beseen as showing lack of respect forauthority. 25. THE END </p>