1. Learning objectives: Identify the socio-emotional changes in the adolescent. Describe how self-image develops among teens. Determine the wholesome attitudes and values in teenage friendship. Discern the causes of moral reasoning and feeling, while understanding religiously-imposed morality. Recognize the need of the adolescent for freedom and privacy, also known as adolescent emancipation.
2. Adolescence isnt just about prom or wearing sparkly dresses. - Jena Malone
4. Stereotype in gender difference Scholars make reference to gender differences, as studies in countries like U.S. show that boys have higher self- esteem in achievement and leadership, while girls see themselves better in terms of congeniality and sociability (Hattie & Marsh, 1996). These studies also show that Boys are more self-sufficient while girls are help-seeking.
5. Other studies show that girls have a higher self- esteem in relation to competence in spelling, penmanship, neatness, reading and music (Elcless et al., 1993). Meanwhile, boys feel more competent in math subjects while girls prefer in social and verbal skills (Marsh, 1989).
6. Within the family domain, boys tend to prefer activity and autonomy of children, while girls prefer family relationship, connection, and openness (Olver et al., 1990).
7. Developing Self-esteem Self-esteem means appreciation of ones self or self-love. Potential endowment can be developed to a great extent through family formation, school education and social influence. The personal attitude-and-will to grow depends on the individual.
8. Popularity and external appearance. Self-appreciation, self- reliance, autonomy, energy, courage and internal positive motivators.
9. Friendship and Intimacy
10. Identity Issues Phases of identity status John Marcia expanded on Eriksons theory on identity by identifying four phases in the attainment of an identity status. Commitment and crisis are two dimensions that combine to define these stages:
11. 1. Identity foreclosure This is the case of an adolescent who is a follower, finding security in others not in his/her self. 2. Moratorium This is the case of an adolescent searcher. 3. Identity achiever This is the point where the adolescent fully find himself/herself. 4. Identity diffusion This is the case of the adolescent failing to find himself/herself.
12. Promoting a sense of identity Overall, the ingredients that make up an optimal sense of personal identity are: 1. Inner confidence about self competence and ability to learn and master new tasks; 2. Ample opportunity to try out new roles either in ones fantasy or actual practice, and; 3. Support from parents and adults
13. Stereotypical gender roles On emotional response, girls in early adolescence are more self-conscious, excelling in verbal skills, while they invest more time in intimate friendships. Meanwhile, boys show independence and less emotional, involving themselves in sports ( Galambos et al., 1990)
14. Antisocial behavior among adolescents Gerald Patterson formulated a developmental progression for antisocial behavior which takes into account.
15. a. The importance of parental monitoring and discipline on the child in early childhood b. Involvement with peer and school work in middle childhood c. Commitment with peer group in late childhood and adolescence.
16. In early childhood (ages 10-13), the children is normally subordinated to conventional authority in the family and majority of children including teens. Commonly cited are a complexity of reasons to explain the incidence of juvenile delinquency. These are: (1) family factors, (2) poor parental supervision, (3) poor parental behavior, (4) feelings of alienation (sense of separation) by children, (5) external factors affecting the family (economic and social pressures), and (6) child rejection/abuse/neglect. Peer factors.
17. Moral Development Lawrence Kholberg laid down three stages of moral reasoning among adolescent: 1. Conventional level At this stage the adolescent is able to understand and conform to social conventions, consider the motives of peers and adults, engage in proper behavior to please others, and follow the rules of society.
18. 2. Post-conventional level At this stage, the adolescent wishes to conform to: a. Law and order b. The social contract c. Universal ethical principles
19. Development of guilt Guilt is a sense of feeling responsible for ones actions, particularly when harm has been done to oneself or others. On the negative side, guilt can threaten self- image. On the positive side, guilt makes us aware of possible wrong doing.
20. As the stages in developing guilt, the first rudimentary feelings of guilt begin when children thin they have caused some kind of harm to others. Anticipatory Guilt is felt when the child sees consequences that are detrimental to oneself to others. Survivor Guilt is experienced when one feels blameworthy regardless of involvement.
21. Influence in moral behavior Peers can encourage positive behavior, although they can also encourage misconduct or inappropriate behaviors. The influence of parents is more pervasive.
22. Identified by scholars in the process of individuation are: a. The practicing phase, as parents continue to make behavior conformance demand while the adolescent begins to feel the need for psychological freedom b. Rapprochement, as adolescent re-establish bonds with parents, induced by parents recognizing their psychological need for freedom to grow.