The tragedy and Oedipus Rex by Sophocles - review the presentation and prepare for long exam on Tuesday. See u there.
Was a public genre from its earliest beginnings at Athens
refers primarily to tragic drama: a literary composition written to be performed by actors in which a central character called a tragic protagonist or hero suffers some serious misfortune
the misfortune is logically connected with the hero's actions.
Tragedy stresses the vulnerability of human beings whose suffering is brought on by a combination of human and divine actions.
TRAGIC HEROES ARE:
BORN INTO NOBILITY:
RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR OWN FATE
ENDOWED WITH A TRAGIC FLAW
DOOMED TO MAKE A SERIOUS ERROR IN JUDGEMENT
EVENTUALLY, TRAGIC HEROES
FALL FROM GREAT HEIGHTS OR HIGH ESTEEM
REALIZE THEY HAVE MADE AN IRREVERSIBLE MISTAKE
FACES AND ACCEPTS DEATH WITH HONOR
MEET A TRAGIC DEATH
FOR ALL TRAGIC HEROES
THE AUDIENCE IS AFFECTED BY PITY and/or FEAR
Some other common traits characteristic of a tragic hero:
Hero must suffer more than he deserves.
Hero must be doomed from the start, but bears no responsibility for possessing his flaw.
Hero must be noble in nature, but imperfect so that the audience can see themselves in him.
Hero must have discovered his fate by his own actions, not by things happening to him.
Hero must see and understand his doom, as well as the fact that his fate was discovered by his own actions.
Hero's story should arouse fear andempathy .
Hero must be physically or spiritually wounded by his experiences, often resulting in his death.
Ideally, the hero should be akingor leader of men, so that his people experience his fall with him. This could also include a leader of a family.
The hero must be intelligent so he may learn from his mistakes.
The hero must have a weakness; usually it is pride.
He has to be faced with a very serious decision.
Must have something gone wrong in his/her current life.
The suffering of the hero must have meaning.
7. Three Tragic Writers 8. Bust of Aeschylus from theCapitolineMuseums ,Rome Aeschylus( 525 BC 456 BC ;Greek : ) was aplaywrightofAncient Greece . He is the earliest of the threeGreek tragedianswhose plays are not entirely lost. 9. Sophocles was one of the three greatancient Greek tragedians . 10. Euripides( Greek : ) (c. 480406BC ) was the last of the three greattragediansof classicalAthens 11. 12.
Theateris derived from the Greek wordtheatron , which contains the stem of the verbtheasthai'to view as spectators'.
Dramais a Greek word meaning'action' , related to the verbdran 'to do '. The author of a tragedy was not just a writer of a script. When his work was approved for presentation at the state religious festival in honor of the godDionysus(theCity Dionysia ), the state assigned him actors and a chorus.
13. 14. 15.
Greek tragedies and comedies were always performed in outdoor theaters.
Orchestra: The orchestra (literally, "dancing space") was normally circular. It was a level space where the chorus would dance, sing, and interact with the actors who were on the stage near the skene.
Theatron: The theatron (literally, "viewing-place") is where the spectators sat. The theatron was usually part of hillside overlooking the orchestra, and often wrapped around a large portion of the orchestra (see the diagram above).
Oedipus the King
Oedipus at Colonus
Oedipus the King
Group yourselves into six (7) with three (3) members per group. (triad)
You will be given strips of paper which will be arranged according to the order of events taken from the tragic drama Oedipus Rex.
You are given 20 minutes for this activity.
Laius, King of Thebes is told in an oracle that his son will kill him. With the agreement of his wife, Jocasta, the babys feet are pinioned and the baby was given to a slave to be exposed to wolves and other wild beasts.
The slave, who is a shepherd of Laius flocks, takes pity on the baby, and instead of leaving it to die, gives the baby boy to a fellow shepherd from another kingdom, Corinth.
The Corinthian shepherd gives the baby to the childless King of Corinth, Polybus adopts the baby and gives him the name Oedipus meaning Swollen Feet because of the babys deformity.
Eighteen years or so later, someone at a party calls the young Oedipus a bastard and Oedipus is greatly disturbed.
Oedipus leaves Corinth for Delphi to confirm his parentage at the oracle of Apollo. The oracle, however, gives him instead a horrific prediction: he will kill his father and marry his mother .
The priestess of the oracle at Delphi was known as thePythia . Apollo spoke through his oracle, who had to be an older woman of blameless life chosen from among the peasants of the area. 22. Temple of Apollo at Delphi 23.
Afraid that the oracle will come true, Oedipus decides not to return to Corinth and heads for the opposite direction, Thebes. On a place where 3 roads meet, Oedipus meets a man driving a wagon with a bunch of slaves. The man is rude to Oedipus and orders him off the road. Oedipus is enraged and kills the man and his slaves. He continues his way to Thebes while one of the slaves escapes the attack
24. A man from Delphi to Thebes 25. 26.
When Oedipus reaches Thebes, the kingdom was being plagued by a monster---a sphinx (a creature with the body of a lioness and the head of a woman) who slaughters all who cannot solve her riddle. The riddle of the sphinx is: what creature stands on four legs in the morning, two at midday and three at sun down.
Oedipus replies MAN, solves the riddle of the sphinx and liberates Thebes. As a reward, he is offered the vacant position of King of Thebes and marries the Queen, Jocasta.
Many years pass and Oedipus fathers four children by Jocasta.
Another plague besets Thebes killing crops, animals and children. Oedipus, the King, promises to save his city. Plagues are believed to be caused by sin and only the god can reveal its cause.
Oedipus assigns his brother-in-law, Creon, to consult the oracle at Delphi to determine the cause of the plague. The oracle reveals that the plague is caused by an unpunished murder---that of the former king, Laius.
Oedipus vows to let the murderer of the former king pay for his crime. Oedipus then turns to Teiresias, the blind but highly respected prophet to name the murderer.
Teiresias hesitates at first, but after several threats from Oedipus, he names Oedipus as the murderer. Oedipus is enrages, believing that Teiresias and Creon have concocted the story to dethrone him and seize power for themselves.
Hearing that their quarrel was about the oracle, Jocasta assures her husband that oracles are nonsense. She goes on telling Oedipus how she and Laius had a baby boy before whom the oracle prophesied would kill its father. Then Jocasta tells Oedipus how the innocent babe died and how Laius was killed by robbers at a place where 3 roads meet.
Suddenly, Oedipus remembers how he killed a man at such a place before when he was on his way to Thebes. Jocasta calls for the man who escaped the attack which killed Laius and several others.
Before the lone survivor of the attack is presented to Oedipus and Jocasta, a messenger from Corinth arrives to tell Oedipus that Polybus, his father, is dead and that he will now be the new king of Corinth. Oedipus tells the messenger that he wont dare return to Corinth for fear of marrying his mother.
The messenger then reveals to Oedipus that the queen of Corinth is not his real mother. He explains how the baby Oedipus was given to him by a shepherd from Thebes. Afterwards, everything became clear to Jocasta and she rushes out.
At last, the survivor of the ambush arrives, who also turns to be the shepherd who was tasked to abandon the baby Oedipus to a Corinthian. Upon learning the entire truth, Oedipus rushes to Jocasta, but Jocasta has already hanged herself .
Greatly agonized, Oedipus takes the pins from Jocastas dress and pierces his eyes until he gets blind.