Presentation delivered at Dyslexia Guild Summer Conference 2011 in Oxford. (Slideshow updated based on feedback from the session).
- 1. Online Corpus Literacy TeachersBest FriendDominik Luke http ://dominiklukes.net Dyslexia GuildSummer Conference 2011 training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk
2. Outline training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk http://www.flickr.com/photos/adactio/3563832656 What is a corpus Answering questions with a corpus The language of corpus searches The corpus and the classroom Practice 3. Corpus / Corpora training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk ???? 4. of about training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk language knowledgehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/missturner/3029700617/ 5. Prescriptivism training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk how language should be used Descriptivism how languageisused v 6. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk Most of the prescriptive rules ofthe language mavensmake no sense on any level. They are bits of folklore that originated for screwball reasons several hundred years ago For as long as they have existed, speakers have flouted them 7. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk intellectual abdication should be ashamed current around 1900 a perversion of grammatical education blind to textual evidence even when he himself exhibits it dishonest and stupid vile little compendium of tripe about style GrammarianGeoffrey K Pullum on More passives in Orwell's pompous essay with the warning about how you mustn't use them than in any periodical you can lay your hands on! 8. This usage stuff isnotstraightforwardand easy. If ever someone tells you that the rules of English grammar are simple and logical and you should just learn them and obey them, walk away, because you're gettingadvice from a fool. http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=2790 9. Corpus training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk Key modern tool for finding outabouthow language works 10. Corpus training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk is a large database ofrepresentativelanguage samples 11. Corpus training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 100s of millions of words from (mostly) written language in different genres in small samples (~2000 words) 12. Corpus training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk used for linguistic research, making dictionaries, writing grammars, 13. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 14. Corpora available for teachers training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk http://corpus.byu.edu 15. Access to COCA and related BYU corpora is free training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk butfreeregistration required for more than ~10 queries a day 16. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 17. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk Brown the grandfather COCA BNC Webcorp Google 18. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 19. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 20. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk http://www.flickr.com/photos/atoach/3900591006/ Searching a corpus early on in the process of making a generalization can save you a lot of unpleasant surprises later. 21. How do we use the word dyslexia?
- We speak more often of dyslexic children than adults.
- We speak more often of dyslexia than any other dys- word.
training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 22. Concordance BNC: dyslexic [n*] COCA:dyslexic [n*]http://www.americancorpus.org/ http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc 23. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk COCA: dys* 24. Suffixing rules training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk *yed *ied 25. Suffixing rules training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk *yed *ied pl a yed st a yed portr a yed enj o yed unempl o yed surv e yed d ied t r ied mar r ied wor r ied identi f ied app l ied 26. The Corpus Magic training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk * [ ] ? Different corpora use slightly different codes. Read the manual. [n* ] 27. The Corpus Magic training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk * [ ] ? Any one character Any number of characters (incl 0) Lemma(all inflectional forms of a word) Different corpora use slightly different codes. Read the manual. [n* ] Part of speech tags (e.g. nouns) 28. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk * *each each, reach, beach, teach, outreach, , impeach, teach* teachers, teaching, , teachable, teacher-librarians, t*ch touch, teach, tech, torch, trench, twitch, , three-inch, teach * teach the, teach us, teach students, 29. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk ? ?each reach, beach, teach, peach, leach, keach, each? each- (1), each# (1) [ie nothing] ?each? peachy, bleachy, teacha, reachs (2)[ie spelling error] , t?ch tech, tach, toch, tuch, tsch, tich t??ch touch, teach, torch, tisch, 30. [Lemma] training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 31. Part of speech tags training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk [run] . [n*] [run] [n*] 32. Common tags training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk [n*] noun [NN2] plural nouns [v*] verb [VVD] verb past tense [aj*](BNC)/ [j*] (COCA) adjective [av*](BNC)/ [r*] (COCA)adverb 33. Help training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 34. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 35. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 36. You can also training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk cats and dogs search for idioms ?each*s combine wildcards [=pretty] search for synonyms car|bike|horse search for alternatives used -car exclude searches For more details see: 37. Concordance + KWIC training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk *ies.[N*] 38. KWIC K ey- W ord InC ontext training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk *ies.[N*] 39. Limit searches by genre training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 40. Other questions corpus can answer
- Are there more nouns or verbs ending in-ies?* ies.[V*]vs.*ies.[N*]
- Are there four-letter verbs ending in-edin the present tense???ed.[VVB]
- What are the most common adjectives describing students vs. pupils.[j*] [student]vs.[j*] [pupil]
- What do we say teachers do most often?[teacher] [vvb]
training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 41. Corpus, rules, and regularity training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk http://www.flickr.com/photos/51505078@N00/352492687 pre* *ed *ies.[V*] 42. Collocations Limits on variability training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk See also Kennedy, p. 80-23 43. Collocations (cont) Limits on variability training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk See also Kennedy, p. 80-23 44. Collocations (cont) training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk [teacher] must [v*] 45. Idioms and set phrases training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 275 results 359 results 46. Google as a Corpus training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk " put the search text in quotes " use*for the search item 47. training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 48. Google as a CorpusPros & Cons training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk PRO:rare, low frequency usage, uptodate usage CON: no sampling, no frequency sort, no genre limit, no part of speech tags 49. Google results counts are only rough estimates training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk http://searchengineland.com/why-google-cant-count-results-properly-53559 Different people searching in different geographic locations can get different numbers Sometimes searching for A gives fewer results than searching for A without B 50. but Google fights can be funtraining.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 51. WebCorp is makes Google search results linguist-friendly training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 52. Avoid Common Corpus Errors training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk Be aware oflimitations : sampling, coverage, size, presence oftyposand errors,bad part of speech tagging Beware of lowfrequencyresults Beware ofhomographs Check results come from multiplesources CheckKWICto confirm relevance Limit search bygenre http://www.flickr.com/photos/andreassolberg/433734311 53. Check examples and sources training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 54. Always check low frequency results training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk must [v*] [n*] sometimes they come from the same source 55. False roots http://etymonline.com corner, silly, preface, cockroach, protest, stable 56. Make your own corpus with TextSTAT http:// neon.niederlandistik.fu-berlin.de/en/textstat 57. Make your own corpus with AntConc training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/software.html 58. Corpus in the classroom training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk teacher preparation student discovery 59. Teacher preparation training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk
- find relevant, common examples
- find out answers to student questions about rules and usage
60. Student discovery training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk
- show search results to students to work out rules or word meanings
- teach students how to search for questions
- ask students to give each other puzzles for searching
61. For heavy classroom use training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk register for group access to prevent spam lock out 62. Corpus v dictionary training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk 63. Non-classroom corpus use training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk supplement dictionary cross-word puzzles check typical usage when writing 64. Where to go next? training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk http://www.corpora4learning.net 65. Thank you Contacthttp://dominiklukes.net training.dyslexiaaction.org.uk