Paraphrasing and avoiding plagiarism

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  • Workshop: Paraphrasing and Avoiding PlagiarismElena Gonzlez Rivera, Ed.D.September 20, 2013BIOL 3095

  • ObjectivesDefine the termsParaphrasingDirect QuotingSummarizingDiscuss effective ways to summarizeIdentify appropriate transitional wordsPractice effective ways of paraphrasingDefine plagiarism and identify itDiscuss how to find your own voice and avoid plagiarism

  • Exercise # 1In your own words and without consulting a dictionary, write your definition ofParaphrasingSummarizingDirect quoting

  • I. DefinitionsParaphrasing involves: expressing the text in your own words.producing a slightly shorter version of the original text.crediting the author for their intellectual production.

    Source: University of Perdue Writing Lab

  • I. DefinitionsSummarizing involves: placing only the authors main idea(s) into your own words. recognizing the authors contribution by citing him/her. making a significantly shorter version of the text. Source: University of Perdue Writing Lab

  • I. DefinitionsDirect quotations must:be a carbon copy of the original text. refer to a limited segment of the source. give credit to the author.

    Source: University of Perdue Writing Lab

  • Exercise #2SummarizingRead handout #1 on Summarizing Facts about summarizing

  • II. Transitional WordsMaking logical transitions between ideasAlternativesome examples of alternative transitional words are: either, or, nor, on the other hand, however, neither, and otherwise. They are used when you can alternate between two concepts or expressions. Causal include thus, then, unless, subsequently, therefore, because, consequently, as a result, if, in order to/that, for, and so. They can be used when referring to consequences or effects. Illustrativephrases such as for example, for instance, to illustrate, and as an example permit us to clarify an idea by connecting it to an example. Repetitive, reiterative expressions such as include in other words, in short, that is, stated simply, and to put it another way help add clarity through meaningful repetition

    Spatial, physicalprepositions like the words under, beside, on top of, next to, behind, point to a physical/spatial relationship between things mentioned in two separate statementsThere are also transitional words to denote time (first), purpose (to this end), summary (without doubt), and addition (equally important)

  • Paragraph model - transitional words Studies show that there has been an increase in the number of people who support medicide, which happens when people with terminal diseases choose to end their lives, rahter than continue living. One common argument for this growing support is that people should not be forced to continue living if they are in severe pain and cannot live with this constant pain). A second reason is that staying in the hospital for a long time often causes a financial burden on the family. Terminally ill people often worry about the hardship that this will cause their families. Finally, people who are dying sometimes lose hope. Even if they are alive, they can often only lie in bed, and for some people, this is not life. While many people believe that medicide is an unnatural way to die and should remain illegal, sick people should certainly have the right to end their lives if they want.

    (Topic sentence)

    (Supporting sentence 1)

    (Supporting sentence 2)

    (Supporting sentence 3)

    (Counterargument or rebuttal)

    Source: Dr. Jos Santos Module for INGL 3201 2007

  • III. Effective Paraphrasing

    6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing1. Re-read a selection until you fully understand it before trying to paraphrase2. Close the selection and paraphrase from memory 3. Give your paraphrase a topic title and write yourself a footnote reminding you how you could use it in the future 4. Compare your text with the authors 5. Place borrowed terms or phrases in quotation marks6. Jot down all bibliographic information for citation it in Your Own Words by Dana Lynn Driscoll and Allen Brizee, June 2010

  • III. How to ParaphraseThe University of New South Wales in Sydney Australia mention the same steps to paraphrasing as Purdue but adds other important elements to consider. Elements to consider: Meaning: maintain the same ideas and the same relationship between themWords: Use synonyms except for specialized subject vocabularyC. Phrases: If you want to retain unique or specialist phrases, use quotation marks ( )D. Structure: Do not maintain the same grammatical or sentence structure as the author. (Vary sentence length, change from active to passive voice, or use adjectives instead of nouns)D. Order: Change the order in which the text is presented without altering the ideasE. Attitude: Reflect the authors attitude in your version of the text (ex. critical, confident, etc.)Source:

  • Exercise #3Read handout #2 entitled:Paraphrasing and documentationIf the hyperlink does not work, refer to the document I attached along with the presentation.

  • Exercise #4Now that you have read an example of a paraphrase, complete the following exercise by evaluating the quality of 3 paraphrased versions of a test. Handout #3 contains the exercise. Compare paraphrases

  • Exercise #5Now you will practice paraphrasing 5 passages by completing handout #4Paraphrasing exercises


  • Define PlagiarismPlagiarism istaking another persons ideas and pretending they are yours a type of intellectual theftthe result of ignorance or deliberate intention

    Plagiarism has serious consequences

  • Example of Plagiarism

    Zakaria apologized unreservedly to Jill Lapore for cribbing a passage from her New Yorker piece, but he was suspended nonetheless. (From left: Jason Andrew / Contour by Getty Images; no credit; Amy Sussman / Getty Images-New Yorker) Taken from the Daily Beast.

  • Example of Plagiarism

    A la derecha, Janet Marilyn Hernndez, una publicista venezolana, a la izquierda, el doctor Ivn Ros Hernndez, profesor de publicidad. Note: Taken from Noticel at

  • Clarification of Term

    Take the plagiarism quiz

  • How Does Plagiarism Happen?

    Intellectual insecurity related to using your own wordsThe Problem: Its a Paradox Contradictions about academic writing: You are expected to: 1. refer to experts, and 2. produce 'original' work How can you do both? Solution: Develop arguments or views based on research. Come to your own conclusions based on your research.

  • How Does Plagiarism Happen?The Solution

    Find your voice and incorporate it into your own writing. In assignments synthesize answers from the opinions of others.

    Be like a DJ - draw information from many sources and show it in a new light YOUR LIGHT, YOUR PERSPECTIVE Finding your own voice = producing something of your own from the ideas/research of others

  • Four Steps to Finding Your Own VoiceOvert Original ResearchOrganizationIntegration

  • Four Steps to Finding Your Own Voice

    1. OvertOne way is to write yourself into the essay (use first person) For example: 'I will argue that 'In this essay I argue that... 'From our investigations we conclude that The researchers of this study concludesOne can conclude from this investigation

    2. 'Original' Research go beyond the material presented in class reading more widely construct a different argument from other students, show your individuality

  • Four Steps to Finding Your Own Voice3. OrganizationThe way you put your essays together may give them a distinctive quality. The order of the paragraphs is your choice.Impose your framework over the question, and don't let your sources dictate the structure of your essay either.4. Integration choosing the right wordsWhat transition signals and reporting verbs (states, argues, asserts, writes etc.) do you use?

  • Using the Correct Words

    Evans states that 'the sky is red' (2001:8).states' indicates that you have a largely neutral stance toward the idea expressed.Evans argues that 'the sky is red' (Evans, 2001:8)'argues' indicates that you think that Evans supports his opinion with argument & evidenceEvans asserts that 'the sky is red' (Evans, 2001:8asserts' indicates that you think that Evans does not fully support his idea

    Evans claims that 'the sky is red' (Evans, 2001:8)'claims' indicates that you think that Evans does not support his idea at allEvans rightly argues that 'the sky is red' (2001:8)'rightly argues' indicates that you agree strongly with the viewEvans wrongly argues that 'the sky is red' (2001:8'wrongly argues' indicates that you disagree with conclusion that Evans has drawnEvans is partially correct when he argues that 'the sky is red' (200 1: 8)'partially correct' suggests that you agree with some, but not all, of Evans' view

  • Exercise #6

    In the next seminar assignment paraphrase a passage from it.

    Summarize the content of the seminar.

    Include a direct quote in your summary


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