Part3 excursionsintorussi

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Excursions into Russian and American History in Writing and Stories

by Edward Fadeev and Svetlana Bogatyreva

Writing Skills

Moscow 2015

Excursions into Russian and American History in Writing and Stories, Writing Skills, is a third part of a comprehensive rhetoric and sentence structure textbook/workbook for high-intermediate English language learners who are in college. This book teaches writing in a straightforward manner, using a step-by-step approach. Clear, relevant models illustrate each step, and varied practices reinforce each lesson.The first part of the book provides a quick review of importance of proper vocabulary activity. The second unit shows some useful aspects and practices in describing people. The third unit informs on descriptive composition and variety of proper ways to organize it. The following units 4 and 5 provide students with necessary points regarding principles in paragraph structuring and types of writing. These units offer comprehensive chapters on process, cause/effect, comparison/contrast, and argumentative essays. Sentence structure, with special emphasis on subordinated structures, is taught in the third part of tire book.The course introduces students with varieties of personal and official letters, which can play a vital role in improving writing skills. Throughout the book, models and practices feature general academic and historic topics that are timely and relevant to students living in a rapidly changing world. In addition, readings from current, real-world publications conclude the chapters on different essay forms. Most chapters offer a variety of writing assignments, and each chapter ends with a review of the main teaching points.Appendices explain the writing process; give punctuation rules; show charts of connecting words, transition signals, and editing symbols; and teach students basic research and documentation skills. Self-editing and peer-editing worksheets and model scoring rubrics are also provided. References to the appendices appear within the chapters where students are likely to benefit most from using this material.

To the StudentWriting is a very important part of your university study. Yon will write assignments that may range from one paragraph to several pages long, and will write answers on tests and exams that may be a few sentences long or a complete essay.Academic writing in English may he different not only from academic writing in your own language, but even from other writing in English. The purpose of this textbook is to help you recognise and produce the sort of writing that you will do for your university courses.During this course, you will have many opportunities to .study and discuss examples of English academic writing. Naturally, you will also have many opportunities to discuss your own academic writing and the writing of your classmates. You will learn how important the reader is to the writer, and how to express clearly and directly what you mean to communicate. We hope that what you learn in this course will help you throughout your academic studies and beyond.You should come to your writing class every day with energy and a willingness to work and learn. Your teacher and your classmates have a lot to share with you, and you have a lot to share with them. By coming to class with your questions, taking chances and trying new ways, and expressing your ideas in another language, you will add not only to your own English world but to the world of those around you. Good luck!

CONTENTS

UNIT ONE. BUILDING YOUR VOCABULARY

UNIT TWO. DESCRIBING PEOPLE 2.1. Describing People Appearance 2.2. Describing People Character

UNIT THREE. DESCRIPTIVE COMPOSITION

UNIT FOUR. PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE

UNIT FIVE. PARTS OF A PARAGRAPH 5.1. Describing of process 5.2. Cause and Effect in essays 5.3. Comparison and Contrast 5.4. Argumentative essays

UNIT SIX. TYPES OF WRITING

UNIT SEVEN. LETTER WRITING

VISUAL MATERIALS FOR DESCRIPTION

APPENDIX 1. PUNCTUATION

APPENDIX 2. SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC

APPENDIX 3. FILLING OUT FORMS AND PRACTICE IN VOICE PRESENTATIONS

APPENDIX 4. PERSONAL VIGNETTES

APPENDIX 5. FILLING OUT OF A FORM (APPLICATION)

INTRODUCTION The six steps of the writing processRead about the writing process. These are major steps, which you will practice in this book.

Process writing

When we write, we do more than just put words together to make sentences. Good writers go through several steps to produce a piece of writing.

PRE-WRITING ACTIVITY: GETTING READY TO WRITE.

STEP ONE: Choose a topic.

STEP TWO: GATHER IDEAS ON TOPIC. When you have decided on a topic, take some time and think over what exactly you will write about that topic.

STEP THREE: ORGANISE. Make up your mind on which ideas you want to use and where you want to use them. Choose ideas to write about first, and what you will write next, and what exactly you will write last.

DRAFTING YOUR WRITING

STEP FOUR: WRITE. Write your paragraph or essay from start to finish. Use your notes.

REVIEWING AND REVISING

STEP FIVE: Review structure and content of your writing. Check what you have written. Look at places where you can add some more information.

REWRITING

STEP SIX: Revise structure and content. Rewrite your text making necessary improvements to the structure and context. Make your writing more logical and coherent

What is pre-writing? Gather ideas you want to describe; Edit these ideas and putting them in logical or chronological order;

Before you begin writing, you must decide what exactly you are going to write about. Then you plan what you will write. This process is called pre-writing.

INTRODUCTION: PROCESS WRITING1

4 INTRODUCTION: PROCESS WRITING

CHOOSING AND NARROWING A TOPICHow to choose a topic for a paragraph

A paragraph is a group of five to ten sentences that give in format on about a topic. Before you write, you must choose a topic for your paragraph.

Choose a topic that isn't too narrow (limited. brief). A narrow topic will not have enough ideas to write about. The ages of my brothers and sisters is too narrow. You can not write very much about it. Choose a topic that isn't too broad (genera)). A broad topic: will have too many ideas for just one paragraph. Most paragraphs are five to ten sentences long. A topic Schools is too general. There are thousands of things you can say about it. A narrower topic Specialized English School in my neighborhood is general and more specific. A student could narrow this topic bv choosing one aspect of schools to discuss. For instance, secondary schools in my country, popular school, dubs university, entrance exams and etc.

Choose three topics from this list. Narrow each of the three down. Then compare with a partner. a. festivalsb. friendsc. my countryd. dancinge. cars

BrainstormingWhat is brainstorming?Brainstorming is a way of gathering ideas about a topic. Think of a storm: thousands of drops of rain, coming down together. Now. imagine thousands of ideas 'raining' down onto your paper! When you brainstorm, write down every idea that comes to you. Dont worry now about whether the ideas are good or silly, useful or not. You can decide a draft later. Right now, you are gathering as many ideas as you can.You will learn three types of brainstorming in this unit. They are: making a list, free writing, and mapping.Making a list

Write single words, phrases, or sentences that are connected to your topic. Look at this list and made when brainstorming ideas to write about her topic, 'What should I study at university?'History chronological facts about the past; mathematics (too difficult, not interesting?) What job do I have later? English for work? Travel? Writing?

Work with a partner or small group. Choose one of these topics. List as many ideas as you can in five minutes.a. teenage fashions; b. things to do on the beach; c. driving a motorbike;

Free Writing

When you free write, you write whatever is in your head about your topic, without stopping. Most free writing exercises are shortjust five ten minutes.Free writing helps you practice fluency (writing quickly and easily). When you free write, you do not need to worry about accuracy (having correct grammar and spelling). Do not check your dictionary when you free write. Do not stop if you make a mistake. Just keep writing!

Here is an example of a students free writing:There are so many subjects to study at university; it is difficult to choose just one. I have always had A and B grades in math, but the problem is that I do not like it very much. I also do not like physics or other exact subjects. Writing? Yes, I have always liked writing. Would journalism be a good job for me in the future? Newspapers also have many pictures, so maybe photography will be good for me.

Notice how the writers ideas jump around. When she makes a mistake, she just crosses it out and continues writing. One thought leads to another (journalism) and then to another {photography). There are some details that are not exactly should be written about. However, that is OK in free writing. You want to get as many ideas on paper as you can. You can take out all unnecessary words and sentences later.

Choose one of the narrowed down topics you thought of for exercise 1 on page 5. Practice in free writing for live minutes. Remember, do not stop, erase, or go back. Just write as much as you can.

Mapping

make map, use a whole piece of paper, and write your topic: