Personal hygiene

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)



Text of Personal hygiene

  • 1. Personal HygieneMrs.Puvaneswari RameshAssoc. ProfessorNHCON

2. Contents Hygieneand Elements Personal hygiene Definition Care of Hair Skin and Face Teeth Ears Hands Nails and cuticles Feet 3. HygieneFrom the Greek wordhygies(Hygiea- Goddess ofHealth)Meaning healthy, sound 4. Hygiene Common elements Personal hygiene Environmental hygiene EnvironmentalPersonal hygienehygiene 5. Personal hygiene - Definition Personal hygiene may be described as theprinciple of maintaining cleanliness andgrooming of the external body.Failure to keep up a standardof hygiene can have many implications.Not only is there an increased risk ofgetting an infection or illness, but thereare many social and psychological aspectsthat can be affected. 6. What is Personal Hygiene?Regular Routine of Personal CareWashing and Grooming of Hair Face and Skin Teeth Ears Hands Nails Feet 7. Hair Hair is made of dead cells. Hair is important because it brings oil tothe surface of the skin. Hair helps warm the body by trapping alayer of air next to the scalp. 8. Hair Care Tips Wash regularly with shampoo. Rinse hairthoroughly with clear water aftershampooing to remove all the soap Dont scrub or rub too hard . It mayirritate your scalp or damage your hair. 9. Massageyour scalp well. It will removedead skin cells, excess oil and dirt Brush hair daily Wash combs and brushes frequently Dont share combs, brushes etc. 10. Why Brush Your Hair? Brushinghelps keep the scalp clean byloosening and removing dust and deadcells. It also adds shine 11. Hair & Scalp problems Dandruff Head lice Splitting and breaking 12. Dandruff A flaking of the outer layer of dead skincells on the scalp. This condition isusually caused by dry skin. There is nocure for dandruff, but it can be controlledwith special shampoos. 13. Head Lice Parasiticinsects that live on the hair shaftand cause itching. Lice cant fly or jump from person toperson, but they are easy to catch fromother people. 14. Avoiding and Treating Head LiceDont share: Combs, brushes, hats ,barrettes or otherhair things, headphones Use special shampoo and wash your hairimmediately. Any linens and clothes you have usedshould be washed in hot water or dry-cleaned. 15. Splitting & Breaking Toomuch heat can cause the layered cellsof your hair to split apart and even break off. Wind, chlorine, chemical treatments, andpermanent hair dye can weaken hair in thesame way. If you put your hair in a ponytail , use acoated rubber band or soft cloth hair band. Noncushioned or uncovered elastic bandscan cause severe breakage. 16. Skin The human skin is the outer covering ofthe body. Functions of Skin Protection. Vitamin D formation Temperature control Sensation Water resistance Control of evaporation Excretion Absorption 17. Three layers of skin Epidermis-Outer most layer of skin.Cells in the epidermis make melanin Dermis-Inner layer of skin which containsblood vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles,sweat glands, and oil glands Layer of fat cells 18. Common Skin problems Bad odorAcne 19. Body odorPerspiration itself doesnt smell. However, during sweating, another liquid called apocrine is also secreted. When apocrine combines with the bacteria naturally present on the skin, odor results Bad odor is Caused by Poor hygiene Foods such as onions and garlic 20. AcneAcne is created when oil from theoil glands mix with the dead cells and plugup the hair follicles in the skin it creates awhitehead.A blackhead is when the air touchesthe plug, the plug turns black 21. What makes acne worse? Oil-based makeup, suntan oil, hair jellsand spray. For girls, menstruation For Boys it may get worse because theyhave more skin oil. Squeezing or picking at blemishes Hard scrubbing of the skin 22. Daily baths or showers using soap and scrubbing the entire body with awashcloth Do not need to scrub violently. The use antiperspirants decreases perspiration and cover odor with amanly smell Wash the face two times a day with a mild soap or gentle cleanser. It is best to Use lotions only if needed, and use ones that are oil-free and water-based. Try to stay out of the sun, and use a sunscreen every day during summer andwinter. 23. Skin Care Tips Batheor shower regularly using soap Do not scrub violently If possible, bathe or shower afterexercise especially after sweating Use antiperspirants decreasesperspiration and cover odor with a manlysmell Wear clean clothes Reduce stress levels whichirritates the skin Maintain a healthy diet 24. Skin Care Tips Washyour face 2 times a day. Avoid washing too often, as the skin willbecome irritated and dry out. Keep oily hair away from your skin Avoid touching acne except whenwashing Dont squeeze or pick the pimples Try to avoid touching the face. Keep hands clean by washing them often. 25. Protect yourself from the sun Wear sunscreen and reapply it everyhour. Wear a hat, T-shirt, and sunglasses. Drink plenty of fluids. Protect yourself from UV Rays 26. TeethHealthy teeth and gums enable you to: Chewfood thoroughly Speak clearly Give shape and structure to your mouth 27. Structure of teethEnamel (top)The hard material on the outer surface of the tooth.Dentin (middle)Below the enamel the bonelike material that surrounds the sensitive inner parts of the tooth.Pulp (inside)Tissue that contains nerve endings and blood vessels. 28. Dental problemsDental problems are caused by the activity of certain types of oral bacteriaOther causes:Tongue not cleanedFood stuck in teethSinus problemsStomach problems 29. Dental Problems Halitosis Tooth decay Plaque Tartar Periodontal Disease 30. How to avoid Dental problems-Brushing & Flossing Dailydental hygiene routine that consistof brushing for 2-4 minutes and flossing I f possible, brush after every meal orrinse your mouth with warm water. Use a soft-bristled brush. 31. Brushing & Flossing Replaceyour toothbrush every 2-3months or after an illness. Use toothpaste that contains fluoride. Flossing removes food trapped betweenyour teeth and gum lines that rinsing andbrushing miss.FLOSSING 32. Dental care Eat at least 5 servings of fruits andvegetables each day. Include foods that contain calcium, suchas milk and yogurt. Limit intake of sugar. See a dentist every 6 months 33. Ears Wash ears daily with a wash clothdont forget behind the ears Do not use Q tips in ears it will smashthe ear wax deep into the ear canal Usually Ear wax is usually removedwhen you chew food or gum 34. Hands 35. HAND HYGIENE First, wet hands and apply liquid or cleanbar of soap. Next, rub your hands together and scruball surfaces (palms, fingers, and in between). Continue for 10-15 seconds. Soapcombined with the scrubbing action thathelps remove germs. Rinse well and dry your hands. 36. Nails and cuticles The part of the nail that can beseen and touched is composed of deadcells. Thin skin-like layer at the base ofeach nail is called cuticle .A non-livingband of tissue. Nails protect the sensitive tip of ourfingers and toes. Without proper care they can becomeweak, ingrown or infected. 37. Nail Care Keep nails trim but do not cut nailsshorter than skin level. Keep nails clean. Round your fingernails slightly whentrimming them. Cut toe nails straight across. Smooth rough nail edges with a file oremery board. 38. Cuticles Care Clean and soften your hands in warmwater. To keep your cuticles neat, push themback after soaking your hands, while theyare soft. You may also use cuticle remover , achemical that dissolves the cuticle 39. Feet CareLarge collection of sweat glands live inour feet Wash your feet well at least once a day. Dry them carefully, especially betweenthe toes. Keep feet and skin clean and dry Change socks daily Avoid walking barefoot in public areas 40. Make Hygiene part of yourdaily routine