Indranil SarkarContact: 9859945270Pre-RomanticismRousseaus ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity were not only the key-terms of the French Revolution', these were the life-force behind Romanticism also. Russoue gave his messege to the world in the 1870s which is now called Pre-Romantic period in English Poetry.Pre-Romanticism
Pre-Romanticism is a cultural movement in Europe from about the 1740s onward. It succeeded Neo-Classicism and preceded and presaged Romanticism which officially began in 1798 with the publication of The Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge.Pre-Romanticism
Pre-Romanticism is thought to have prepared the ground for Romanticism in its full sense. In various ways, these are all departures from the orderly framework of neoclassicism and its authorized genres. Marshall Brown, Preromanticism (1991).From: preromanticism in The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms
Pre-RomanticismThe most important constituents of preromanticism are the Sturm und Drang phase of German literature; the primitivism of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and of Ossianism; the cult of sensibility in the sentimental novel; the taste for the sublime and the picturesque in landscape; the sensationalism of the early Gothic novels; the melancholy of English graveyard poetry; and the revival of interest in old ballads and romances. These developments seem to have helped to give a new importance to subjective and spontaneous individual feeling. Marshall Brown, Preromanticism (1991).From: preromanticism in The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms
Pre-RomanticismThomas Grey; William Cowper; William Blake; Robert Burns and James Thomson are considered as the most noted Pre-Romantic poets, painters and litterateurs .
Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 30 July 1771) Although Thomas Gray was one of the least productive poets (his collected works published during his lifetime amount to fewer than 1,000 lines), he is regarded as the foremost Pre-Romantic poet. Gray was so self-critical and fearful of failure that he published only thirteen poems during his lifetime. Thomas Gray was a poet, letter-writer, classical scholar and professor at Cambridge University. Link: wikipedia.orgPre-Romanticism
Elegy written in a Country Churchyard (1751) is Grays masterpiece and he is remembered to day for this immortal elegy.He is often classed as a Graveyard Poet for his melancholic notes.Link: wikipedia.org
Pre-RomanticismHardly there exist a single English knowing man who has not read Blakes Tyger, Tyger, burning bright or Little Lamb! Who made thee? But, this was certainly not the case when Blake wrote these poems. He was held mad by his contemporaries and had to suffer extreme hardship and die as an unsung poet cum painter of his country.William Blake (28 November 1757 12 August 1827) is recognized today as a precursor of Romantic literature and painting. William Rossetti characterized him as a "glorious luminary.WWilliam BlakeWilliam Blake
In 2002,BBC Poll review found Blake in No.38 among all great Britons of all ages. He is held in high regard for his expressiveness and creativity, and for the philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work. His paintings and poetry possess an undertone of Romanticism and as such he is called a "Pre-Romantic".Link: Wikipedia.org
William Cowper(26 November 1731 25 April 1800)William Cowper was a poet and hymnodist. One of the most popular poets of his time, Cowper changed the direction of 18th century nature poetry by writing of everyday life and scenes of the English countryside. Samuel Taylor Coleridge called him "the best modern poet.Link: wikipedia.orgWilliam Cowper
William CowperHis poem Light Shining out of Darkness gave the English language the phrase: "God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to perform.In Olney Hymns (1779),'Walking with God, he wrote:- God made the country, and man made the town. This sentence has become a slogan for the environmentalists and naturalists of the late 20th century.
Robert Burns recorded and celebrated aspects of farm life, regional experience, traditional culture, class culture and distinctions, and religious practice and belief in such a way as to transcend the particularities of his inspiration, becoming finally the national poet of Scotland.(poets corner) "Ye Banks And Braes O'Bonnie Doon is a Scottish song. The tune of this inspired Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore to compose his song" Phule Phule Dhole Dhole. Robert Burns composed the original lyric. The song immortalized both Robert Burns and Rabindranath Tagore. It is popular all over the globe. Ye banks and braes o' bonnie Doon, How can ye bloom sae fresh and fair? How can ye chant ye little birds, And I sae weary, fu' o' care?
Robert Burns(17591796 )
Ye'll break my heart, ye warbling birds, That wanton through the flow'ry thorn, Ye 'mind me o' departed joys, Departed never to return. Oft hae I rov'd by bonnie Doon, To see the rose and woodbine twine; And ilka bird sang o' its love, And fondly sae did I o' mine.
Wi' lightsome heart I pu'd a rose,Fu' sweet upon its thorny tree; And my fause lover stole my rose, But ah! he left the thorn wi' me.Robert Burns is also remembered for his beautiful song My Luve is like a Red, Red Rose.Tagore heard the Scottish song "Ye Banks And Braes O'Bonnie Doon as a young man of 21,on his first visit to England. He,later adapted it in Bengali for his work The Fatal Hunt or (Kalmrigaya). It was used for the goddess song as Phule Phule Dhole Dhole in Scene 2 (The flowers! They slumber).The song was composed by Rabindranath at the age of 21 and was set to Taal "Khemta.
Robert Burns(17591796 )
Robert Burns My luve is like a Red,Red RoseO my Luve is like a red, red rose Thats newly sprung in June; O my Luve is like the melody Thats sweetly played in tune.
So fair art thou, my bonnie lass, So deep in luve am I; And I will luve thee still, my dear, Till a the seas gang dry.
Till a the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi the sun; I will love thee still, my dear, While the sands o life shall run.
And fare thee weel, my only luve! And fare thee weel awhile! And I will come again, my luve, Though it were ten thousand mile.
"A Red, Red Rose" is a 1794 song in Scots by Robert Burns based on traditional sources.
James Thomson (11 September 1700 27 August 1748) was a Scottish and British Pre-Romantic poet and playwright. He is known to day for his masterpiece The Seasons and the lyrics of Rule, Britania!".Thomson studied at Edinburgh University. Thomson became a member of the Grotesque Club, a literary group there, and he met his lifelong friend David Mallet.His famous works are The Seasons; To the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton; Liberty (1734);Rule Britania; The Castle of Indolence etc.
James ThomsonThomson published his masterpiece, a long, blank verse poem in four parts, called The Seasons: Winter in 1726, Summer in 1727, Spring in 1728, and the whole poem, including Autumn, in 1730.The Seasons was the first sustained nature poem in English and concludes with a Hymn to Nature. The work was a revolutionary departure; its novelty lay not only in subject matter but in structure. What was most striking to Thomsons earliest readers was his audacity in unifying his poem without a plot or other narrative device, thereby defying the Aristotelian criteria revered by the Neoclassicist critics.Link: Encyclopedia Britannica
The Seasons by James Thomson
An Outline of Trends in Pre-Romanticism through Romanticism:
Faith in the instinctive goodness of human beings: Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, "An Inquiry Concerning Virtue or Merit;Faith in the relatively high moral and religious value of sympathy or benevolence (School of Sensibility): Steele, Careless Husband (drama); Geo. Akenside, The Pleasures of Imagination; Samuel Rogers, The Pleasures of Memory; Richardson, Pamela; Stern, Tristram Shandy.
Interest in humanitarian movements and reforms (origin of labor standards, child labor laws, slave trade, mental health, and penal reform Accurate observation of nature, though without mysticism, sometimes with the suggestion that nature has a religious significance (Thomson, the Seasons Elegiac interest: in death, mutability, mourning, melancholy (Graveyard School): Blairs "The Grave"; Grays "Elegy in a Country Churchyard.Link: http://theliterarylink.com/prerom.html
Pre-RomanticismInterest in kindness toward animals A democratic attitude: insistence on the rights and dignity of man, and on the freedom of the individual socially and politically Attacks upon wrongs in the established order or in conventional usages: political, economic, social, or educational.Interest in the state of nature: the "noble savage" preference for the simple life of earlier ages, primitive religions, folk-poetry.Source:/Link: http://theliterarylink.com/prerom.html
Pre-RomanticismInterest in the medieval period as a age of faith, chivalry, and poetry Attacks on Pope and other neo-classical authors Revival or imitation of older forms of verse: ballads, sonnets, blank verse, Spenserian stanzas etc. Use of local dialects and colour.Translation or imitation of Oriental